1. Correct Answer: A   Jagat Singh
  2. Correct Answer: B    Lord Dhalhousie
  3. Correct Answer: A    Rishi Jamdagni
  4. Correct Answer: A   Thoda Dance
  5. Correct Answer: A    Khojala
  6. Correct Answer: D    Chaudhary Sher Jung
  7. Correct Answer: C    Naggar
  8. Correct Answer: A    Kullu
  9. Correct Answer: A    Lord Curzon 
  10. Correct Answer: C    J.C French
  11. Correct Answer: D    Parashuram
  12. Correct Answer: A    Kehri Singh 
  13. Correct Answer: A    Bushahr
  14. Correct Answer: C    Hidimba Devi
  15. Correct Answer: B    Hari Chand
  16. Correct Answer: A    Suraj Sen
  17. Correct Answer: B    Sahil Verman
  18. Correct Answer: C    Lord Mayo
  19. Correct Answer: B    1966
  20. Correct Answer: D    Edward J. Buck
  21. Correct Answer: B    1848
  22. Correct Answer: A    1651 A.D
  23. Correct Answer: C    Lahaul Spiti 
  24. Correct Answer: C    Dip Chand
  25. Correct Answer: C    Kullu
  1. Correct Answer: B    35% – Himachal Pradesh has emerged as a hub of drug manufacturing units and meets 35 percent of the  demand of pharma products in Asia. Due to the growth of the pharmaceutical industry, Baddi-BarotiwalaNalagarh industrial belt is known Globally for production of formulation drugs. The belt manufactures more than 150 formulation drugs, with a demand in over 200 countries.
  1. Correct Answer: B    49%
  1. Correct Answer: A    HPKVN has launched ‘Nav Dharaana’- a livelihood based training  programme for persons with  disabilities for nurturing employment and entrepreneurship skills amongst the differently abled persons.
  1. Correct Answer: C    For Welfare of Women’s in Himachal Pradesh, the state govt. has introduced Mukhyamantri Shagun Yojana in the 2021 budget. With an objective to help poor and needy people with financial assistance at the occasion of their daughter’s marriage, this scheme may prove a milestone. Under this newly launched scheme, the state govt. Has announced to provide a money support of Rs. 31,000 on precious occasion.
  1. Correct Answer: A    Germany
  1. Correct Answer: D    Chamba In the Central government’s Aspirational Districts Programme, Chamba district has secured the fourth position in the nationwide rankings announced by NITI

Aayog for the best performance achieved in various sectors of development. NITI Aayog had identified 112 districts, including Chamba, across the country on the basis of indicators of health, nutrition, education, agriculture, water resources, financial inclusion, skill development and basic infrastructural development.

  1. Correct Answer: C     Angora rabbit farms are functioning at Kandwari (Kangra) and Nagwain (Mandi) for distribution of rabbits to the breeders.
  1. Correct Answer: A     Himachal Pradesh Milkfed is manufacturing panjiri at ‘Panjiri Manufacturing Plant’ Chakkar (Mandi) to cater the needs of the Welfare Department under ICDS Project.
  1. Correct Answer: B     HPPCL has set up a 5 MW Berra Dol solar power plant, near Shri Naina Devi Ji Shrine in District Bilaspur. This is the first solar power project in Himachal Pradesh which was built in the Government sector.
  1. Correct Answer: B     HIMCARE is for the families which are not covered under Ayushman Bharat or are not entitled to avail the Government Medical Reimbursement cashless treatment coverage is Rs. 5.00 lakh per year.
  1. Correct Answer: C     30 % of its geographical area
  1. Correct Answer: D     Researchers from Germany have mapped the evolution of Gya glacial lake and have determined the cause of the flood using remote sensing data. The major depositional landforms made by glaciers are Esker, Outwash plains, Drumlins. Major erosional landforms by glaciers are Hanging valley, Cirque, Horns and Aretes.
  1. Correct Answer: C     The Himalayas are of tectonic origin. Geosyncline between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate was folded and uplifted as these plates moved towards each other.
  1. Correct Answer: A     December 21 marks the Winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere. The same day marks the Summer Solstice in the Southern Hemisphere. Option A is correct: It is the shortest day in the Northern Hemisphere. On December 22 the day will be one second longer and gradually the duration of day time will increase. This situation will be reversed six months from now, on June 21, 2021, when the Northern Hemisphere will see the Summer Solstice. The day will be the year’s longest on the Summer Solstice. It occurs when the sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn, located at 23.5° latitude South.
  1. Correct Answer: C

Statement 1 is correct: Kolleru lake is a freshwater lake in Andhra Pradesh.

Statement 2 is not correct: Pulicat lake is a saline and lagoon lake located at the border of Andhrapradesh and Tamilnadu. 

Statement 3 is correct: Loktak lake is a freshwater lake having inland drainage in Manipur.

Statement 4 is not correct: Tsomoriri is a salty lake of Jammu and Kashmir.

Statement 5 is correct: Wular Lake is a freshwater lake and it was created due to tectonic activities. It is located in Jammu and Kashmir.

  1. Correct Answer: B     Pairs 1, 3 and 4 are correctly matched. The Adriatic Sea is positioned between the eastern coastline of Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Montenegro and Albania. The Caspian Sea is bordered by Iran, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and Russia. The Mediterranean Sea has 21 countries sharing a border with it and Morocco is one of them.

Pairs 2 and 5 are not correctly matched. The Black Sea is bordered by Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria and Romania. The Red Sea is bordered by Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea and Djibouti.

  1. Correct Answer: C     A cyclone is any low-pressure area with winds spiralling inwards and is caused by atmospheric disturbances around a low-pressure area distinguished by swift and often destructive air circulation. It is known by different names in different regions. It is known as Hurricane in American continents and as Willy-Willy in Australia. In the Philippines and Japan, it is known as Typhoon and In the Indian subcontinent it is known as Cyclone or Tropical Cyclone.
  1. Correct Answer: B     The Alaknanda rises in the Satopanth glacier and is met at Vishnuprayag by the Dhauli Ganga. Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers unite at Devprayag to form the mainstream known as the Ganga.

The Alaknanda river is among the best for river rafting in the world due to its high rafting grade.The Alaknanda system drains parts of Chamoli, Tehri, and Pauri districts. There are many operational dams and projects in the Alaknanda basin namely Tapovan, Tharali, Vishnuprayag, Srinagar etc

  1. Correct Answer: A     Nilgiri range is a part of western ghats which is spreaded in crossroads of three states- Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala. It is bounded by Moyar River and Pal Ghat in North and South respectively. Nilgiri Tahr is an endemic species of Nilgiri Hills.
  1. Correct Answer: D

Formation of a desert and its location depends on the following factors:

  • Latitudinal location influences the circulation patterns of air masses. E.g.Subtropical deserts found along the Tropic ofCancer, between 15 and 30 degrees North andSouth of the Equator. Hot, moist air rises into the atmosphere near the Equator. As the air rises, it cools and drops its moisture as heavy tropical rains. The resulting cooler, drier air mass moves away from the Equator. As it approaches the tropics, the air descends and warms up again. The descending air hinders the formation of clouds, so very little rain falls on the land below.
  • Rain shadow deserts exist near the leeward slopes of some mountain ranges. Leeward slopes face away from prevailing winds. When moisture-laden air hits a mountain range, it is forced to rise.The air then cools and forms clouds thatdrop moisture on the windward (wind-facing)slopes. When the air moves over the mountaintop and begins to descend the leeward slopes,there is little moisture left. The descending air warms up, making it difficult for clouds to form. Patagonian Desert in South Americaand Death Valley, in the US is an e.g. of rainshadow desert. 
  • Continentality Interior deserts, which are found in the heart of continents,exist because no moisture-laden winds reach them. By the time air masses from coastal areas reach the interior, they have lost all their moisture. The Gobi Desert in Chinaand Mongolia, lays hundreds of kilometers from the ocean. Winds that reach the Gobihave long since lost their moisture. The Gobi Is also in the rain shadow of the Himalaya Mountains to the south. 
  • Insolation Rainfall requires an evaporation of groundwater or ocean water. But near the poles, little rainfall occurs because of the extremely cold temperatures.These areas don’t receive enough sunlight to cause evaporation. Thus, Antarctica could be considered the largest desert in the world.
  1. Correct Answer: B     Dutch disease refers to the phenomenon wherein countries that are rich in natural resources witness uneven growth across sectors. According to the thesis, when resource-rich countries export their resources to the rest of the world, it causes the exchange rate of their currency to appreciate significantly; this, in turn, affects other sectors in the country by discouraging their exports while encouraging the import of cheaper alternatives. The term was coined by The Economist in 1977 to describe the decline of the manufacturing industry in the Netherlands. The idea, however, was first proposed by economists Peter Neary and Max Corden in a paper published in 1982.
  1. Correct Answer: C     An open market operation (OMO) is an activity by a central bank to give (or take) liquidity in its currency to (or from) a bank or a group of banks. The OMOs are conducted by the RBI in the form of sale and purchase of Government Securities (G-Secs) to adjust liquidity in the market. If there is excess liquidity, then RBI undertakes sale of G-Secs and if there is liquidity crunch, then RBI conducts purchase of G-Secs.
  1. Correct Answer: A   In simple terms, the current account measures the flow of goods, services, and investments into and out of the country. It represents a country’s foreign transactions and, like the capital account, is a component of a country’s Balance of Payments (BOP). The Current Account Deficit (CAD) is the shortfall between the money flowing in on exports, and the money flowing out on imports. Current Account Deficit and Fiscal Deficit (also known as “budget deficit” is a situation when a nation’s expenditure exceeds its revenues) are together known as twin deficits and both often reinforce each other, i.e. a high fiscal deficit leads to higher CAD and vice versa.
  1. Correct Answer: A      Cess, surcharge share has been doubled to 19.9% of central taxes in FY21. This massive spike in Cess and Surcharge has forced the 15th Finance Commision to suggest a higher Grant-in-Aid with lower share in the divisible pool of taxes.

Statement 1 is correct. Surcharge is a charge (tax) on any tax, charged on the tax already paid.

Statement 2 is not correct. Surcharge goes to the Consolidated Fund of India and can be spent for any purpose.

Statement 3 is not correct. It is not a part of a divisible pool of taxes as given in Article 271 of the Constitution. Union may keep it fully for its own usage.

  1. Correct Answer: C    The final report of the Fifteenth Finance Commission of India for FY 2021-22 to FY 2025-26 was tabled in the Parliament on February 1, 2021, alongside the Union Budget 2021- 22. The 15th Finance Commission has recommended that states, along with Ladakh and Jammu and Kashmir, be given 42 per cent share in the divisible tax pool of the centre during the period 2021-22 to 2025-26. The Fifteenth Finance Commission (FC) has considered the 2011 population along with forest cover, tax effort, area of the state, and “demographic performance” to arrive at the states’ share in the divisible pool of taxes.
  1. Correct Answer: B     United Nations Development Program(UNDP) has released the Human Development Index(HDI) 2020. India slipped two spots to rank 131 among 189 countries in the 2020 human development index, a report released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). According to the 2020 Human Development Report, life expectancy of Indians at birth in 2019 was 69.7 years while Bangladesh has a life expectancy of 72.6 years and Pakistan 67.3 years.

Human Development Index(HDI) measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development:

A long and healthy life- measured by Life expectancy at birth

Access to knowledge- measured by Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling

A decent standard of living- measured by Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (PPP US$).

  1. Correct Answer: A      As commercial banks are required to keep SLR (cash, gold, government securities) of 18.25%, they keep the maximum percentage of government securities. Out of cash, gold and government securities, the government securities give the best returns (interest), so they prefer this instrument. Cooperative banks also keep government securities under SLR but since cooperative banks overall share in deposit and lending is around 10 percent of the Scheduled commercial banks, so commercial banks have the highest share of government securities.
  1. Correct Answer: C       The Sixth Five-Year Plan marked the beginning of economic liberalisation. Price controls were eliminated and ration shops were closed. This led to an increase in food prices and an increase in the cost of living. This was the end of Nehruvian socialism. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development was established for development of rural areas on 12 July 1982 by recommendation of the Shivaraman Committee.
  1. Correct Answer: B     Exchange rate of foreign currencies is not covered under the RBI monetary and credit  policy.
  1. Correct Answer: D    Openness is measured as, Exports + Imports of goods and services of a country as a percentage of its GDP. So, (d) is correct

Trade balance means Exports – Imports. So, statement (c) is incorrect

  1. Correct Answer: B       B.R Ambedkar is the correct option. He launched a movement against Dalit discrimination by creating public opinion through his writings in several periodicals such as Mook Nayak, Vahishkrit Bharat, and Equality Janta, which he started for the protection of Dalit rights. He founded the Independent Labour Party in August 1936 against the Brahmanical and capitalist structures in the society. ILP argued for Indian labour class while also stressing on the nature of caste structures and need for its annihilation.
  1. Correct Answer: D      The Prime Minister addressed the 125th anniversary celebrations of ‘Prabuddha Bharata’. ‘Prabuddha Bharata’ is a monthly journal of the Ramakrishna Order which was started by Swami Vivekananda. It has been in publication since 1896 and carries articles on social sciences and humanities comprising historical, psychological, cultural and social sciences themes. Prabuddha Bharata’ is regarded as a significant medium for spreading the message of India’s ancient spiritual wisdom.
  1. Correct Answer: C    The Second Round Table Conference was held in 1931. The Quit India Movement was launched in 1942 and the Mutiny of the Royal Indian Navy (RIN) started in February 1946.
  1. Correct Answer: B       Prime Minister addresses the Convocation of Visva-Bharati on 19th February 2021. Visva-Bharati University was founded by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore in 1921 at Santiniketan, Bolpur in West Bengal’s Birbhum district. It is also the oldest Central University in the country and an Institution of National Importance by an Act of Parliament in 1951. It brings a synergy between the country and the rest of the world therefore it is called Visva-Bharati. It consists of two campuses one at Shantiniketan and the other at Sriniketan.

Sriniketan focuses on agriculture, adult education, village, cottage industries and handicrafts.

  1. Correct Answer: C    The monsoon season destroyed agricultural crops and caused a plague epidemic in 1917 claiming to be about 10 percent of the population of Ahmedabad. During the period of the outbreak of intense plague from August 1917 to January 1918, workers of textile mills in Ahmedabad were given. Plague bonus in an attempt to prevent workers from escaping during the outbreak of the plague. But the owner refused, so that Mahatma Gandhi used the weapon of hunger strike for the first time.
  1. Correct Answer: C       Bal Gangadhar Tilak established the Home Rule League in Poona in April, 1916. Joseph Baptista was the first head of the league, with N C Kelkar as the Secretary. The league mainly functioned in areas of Karnataka, Maharashtra, Central Province. It was propagated via newspapers like ‘Kesari’ and ‘Maratha’. Joseph “Kaka” Baptista (17 March 1864 – 1930) was an Indian politician and activist of Mumbai, he was closely associated with the Lokmanya Tilak and the Home Rule Movement. He was given the title Kaka.
  1. Correct Answer: B   Dominion status, Adult suffrage, unitary and democratic centre all were the recommendation of Nehru report 1928, but Separate electorate was not mentioned there . Separate electorate was introduced in Morley Minto reforms
  1. Correct Answer: C   First phase of Swadeshi movement was launched from 1850-1904. The activities involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic products and production processes, which had   some success. First Swadeshi Movement was developed by leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, G.K. Gokhale, Ranade, Tilak, G.V. Joshi and Bhaswat.K.Nigoni.
  1. Correct Answer: B       The State reorganization Commission (SRC) constituted by the central government of India in 1953 to recommend the reorganization of state boundaries. In 1955, the commission recommended that India’s state boundaries should be reorganized to form 14 states and 3 UTs. 

Dr. Ambedkar supported formation of a linguistic state but criticizedSRC Report. In Ambedkar’s opinion, the SRC did not take into consideration the size of the states in terms of population and geographical territory and this resulted in formation of larger states in the north and decline in the size of states towards the south. He said ‘The lams are shorn of the wool’ and ‘they are feeling the intensity of cold’.

  1. Correct Answer: B       Lottery Committee was established in 1813 for the town planning of Calcutta. The committee raised funds with the help of lotteries from the public. The government was not responsible for funding

development and proper planning of the town.

  1. Correct Answer: C      The Quit India Movement, or the August Movement, was a movement launched at the Bombay session of the All-India Congress Committee by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 August 1942, during World War II, demanding an end to British Rule of India. Mahatma Gandhi gave the speech from Gowalia Tank in Mumbai and said Here is a mantra, a short one that I give you. You may imprint it on your hearts and let every breath of yours give expression to it. The mantra is: ‘Do or Die’. We shall either free India or die in the attempt; we shall not live to see the perpetuation of our slavery,” underscored Mahatma Gandhi on this day in 1942.
  1. Correct Answer: B      Dr B. R. Ambedkar was convinced that if Dalits were to be awakened and empowered, they needed to have publications of their own. It was with this objective in mind that he began publishing Marathi fortnightly Mooknayak on 31 January, 1920. “Mooknayak” means the hero of the voiceless on 3 April 1927, Ambedkar launched his second Marathi fortnightly, Bahishkrit Bharat, which remained in publication till 1929. Babasaheb was well aware of the weaknesses of the Untouchables and did not shy of criticizing them. Bahishkrit Bharat’ was started by Dr.B.R.Ambedkar in 1927. 
  1. Correct Answer: C      Kirti Kisan Party was organized in Punjab in 1926. It was headed by Sonhan Singh Joshi. It included many Ghadr members of 1914 and members of Babbar Akali Movement of Punjab. It had Kriti as its main journal which was in existence before the formation of the group.
  1. Correct Answer: B      On 9th January 1915 (Pravasi Bharatiya Divas starting in 2015) Gandhi ji reached Bombay after twelve long years. A great reception awaited him and the Mahatma was overwhelmed by the great love shown to him by the people.
  1. Correct Answer: A       The Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) works under the Ministry of Defence and was constituted for overall guidance of the defence procurement planning process. The Defence Minister acts as its chairperson.
  1. Correct Answer: C     Supreme Court expressed its displeasure on no reply of the Central Government on plea against RTI Amendment Act 2019. 

Statement 1 is not correct. The Chief Information Commission (CIC) is a statutory body.

Statement 2 is not correct. The new term of CIC as decided by the Central Government is 3 years after the 2019 amendment.

Statement 3 is correct. Public Information Officers are liable to reply to RTI applications or plead within 30 days.

  1. Correct Answer: B      The model code refers to a set of norms laid down by the Election Commission of India, with the consensus of political parties. It is not statutory. The purpose of these guidelines is to regulate political parties and candidates prior to elections, to ensure free and fair elections. The MCC is operational from the date that the election schedule is announced till the date that results are announced. The MCC is not enforceable by law. However, certain provisions of the MCC may be enforced through invoking corresponding provisions in other statutes such as the Indian Penal Code, 1860, Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, and Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  1. Correct Answer: C      Recently, the elections in West Bengal and Assam have been marked by violations of the Model Code of Conduct (MCC). Article 324 of the Constitution gives the Election Commission (EC) the power to supervise elections to the Parliament and state legislatures. The EC of India is an autonomous constitutional body responsible for administering Union and State election processes in India.
  1. Correct Answer: B      It was during the 1960s when several issues of national and international importance used to be raised by members of Parliament immediately after Question Hour. On one such occasion, a member raised an issue pertaining to policy announcements made by the ministers outside Parliament when Parliament was in session. This act triggered an idea among other members who called for another provision for discussing important matters in the House. Zero Hour doesn’t find a mention in the Rules of Procedure and hence it’s considered an informal procedure for the members of Parliament to raise matters of serious importance. It is the time gap between the end of Question Hour and the beginning of the regular business of the House.
  1. Correct Answer: C     Article 224A of the Constitution allows the Chief Justice of a High Court to appoint a person who has been a judge earlier to sit as a judge of the court with the prior consent of the President. It was inserted by the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963.
  1. Correct Answer: B        The RBI has set up a committee headed by Sudarshan Sen to undertake a comprehensive review of the working of asset reconstruction companies (ARCs) in the financial sector ecosystem. The committee will recommend suitable measures for enabling them to meet the growing requirements. Asset Reconstruction Company is a company which buys the bad loans (Non-Performing Assets (NPAs)) of banks or any other financial institution, to let them clear their books and resume lending.
  1. Correct Answer: D       No-Confidence Motion can be moved only in the Lok Sabha and not Rajya Sabha. Rule 198 of the Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Lok Sabha specifies the procedure for it. If any member of the House feels that the government in power does not have a majority then he/she can move a no-confidence motion. The member need not give a reason for moving the no-confidence motion.
  1. Correct Answer: B      The summoning of Parliament is specified in Article 85 of the Constitution and the power rests with the government. The decision is taken by the Cabinet Committee on Parliamentary Affairs, which are formalised by the President, in whose name MPs are summoned.
  1. Correct Answer: B       Agriculture comes under the State List i.e. it forms a part of the state list of our Constitution, which essentially means that states are supposed to address all the issues related to agriculture.
  1. Correct Answer: C       Recently, Fifteenth Finance Commission chairman N.K. Singh has called for a fresh look at the Constitution’s Seventh Schedule, which forms the basis for allocating subjects to the Centre and States.

The seventh schedule under Article 246 of the constitution deals with the division of powers between the union and the states. It contains three lists- Union List, State List and Concurrent List. The union list details the subjects on which Parliament may make laws while the state list details those under the purview of state legislatures. The concurrent list on the other hand has subjects in which both Parliament and state legislatures have jurisdiction. However, the Constitution provides federal supremacy to Parliament on concurrent list items in case of a conflict.

  1. Correct Answer: A      Article 21 ensures every person’s right to life and personal liberty. Both the terms, life and personal liberty have been given a very expansive and wide amplitude covering a variety of rights. The expression “life” has been broadly interpreted by the Supreme Court, which has given it an expansive scope. For example: In August 2017, a nine-judge bench of the Supreme Court in Justice K. S. Puttaswamy (Retd) Vs Union of India unanimously held that Indians have a constitutionally protected fundamental right to privacy that is an intrinsic part of life and liberty under Article 21. Hence, statement 1 is correct.

Similarly, Right to Health is also implicit right under article 21. Hence, statement 3 is correct. However, the Right to work is not a fundamental right in India. However, the state should endeavour to provide the right to work under Article 41 in part IV of the constitution (directive principle of state policy).

  1. Correct Answer: C      The Governor is the chief executive head of the State. He acts as an agent of the Central Government. He is appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal. In 1979, the Supreme Court ruled that the office of Governor is not an employment under the Central Government. It is an independent constitutional office and is not under the control of or subordinate to the Central Government.

The oath of office to the Governor is administered by the Chief Justice of the concerned state high court and in his absence, the senior-most judge of that court available. Apart from situational discretionary powers enjoyed by the President, the Governor enjoys the following additional discretionary powers:

  • Reservation of a bill for the consideration of the President.
  • Recommendation for the imposition of the President’s Rule in the state.
  • Exercises his functions as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory (in case of an additional charge).
  • Determining the amount payable by the Government of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram to an autonomous Tribal District Council as royalty accruing from licenses for mineral exploration. Hence, option C is correct.

A Governor holds office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. However, this term of five years is subject to the pleasure of the President. Further, he can resign at any time by addressing a resignation letter to the President.

  1. Correct Answer: C      Article 72 of the Constitution empowers the President to grant pardons to persons who have been tried and convicted of any offence in all cases where the:

Punishment or sentence is for an offence against a Union Law Punishment or sentence is by a court martial (military court)  or the sentence is a sentence of death.

The pardoning power of the President includes the following:

Remission: It implies reducing the period of a sentence without changing the character. For example, the sentence of rigorous imprisonment for two years may be remitted to rigorous imprisonment for one year.  

Pardon: It removes both the sentence and the conviction and completely absolves the convict from all sentences, punishments and disqualifications.

Commutation: It denotes the substitution of one form of punishment with a lighter form. For example, a death sentence may be commuted to rigorous imprisonment, which in turn may be commuted to simple imprisonment.

Respite: It denotes awarding a lesser sentence in place of one originally awarded due to some special fact, such as the physical disability of the convict or pregnancy of a woman offender.

Reprieve: It implies a stay on the execution of a sentence (especially that of death) for a temporary period. Its purpose is to enable the convict to have time to seek pardon or commutation from the President.

  1. Correct Answer: D      The hypothalamus regulates the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. It links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus, just above the brainstem and is part of the limbic system.
  1. Correct Answer: C    Visible ray is the most familiar form of electromagnetic waves. It is the part of the spectrum that is detected by the human eye. It runs from a wavelength range of about 700 – 400 nm. Visible light emitted or reflected from objects around us provides us information about the world.
  1. Correct Answer: A     Sir Frederick Grant Banting was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter and Nobel laureate noted as the first person to use insulin on humans.
  1. Correct Answer: D        The nature of the image formed by a convex mirror is always virtual regardless of the position of the object. When an object is located at infinity the image is formed at the focus. The image will be virtual and highly diminished. Also, when the object is placed at some finite distance; the image will be formed in between the focus and the pole. The nature of the image in this case will also be virtual.
  1. Correct Answer: B       When a ray of light enters from air to water, the frequency of the light remains the same but the wavelength is smaller in water than in air. Think of it like this: At the boundary/interface of the medium, the number of waves you send is the number of waves you receive, at the other side, almost instantly. Frequency doesn’t change because it depends on the travelling of waves across the interface. But speed and wavelength change as the material on the other side may be different, so now it might have a longer/shorter size of wave and so the number of waves per unit time changes.
  1. Correct Answer: D       LPG is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases which largely consists of propane or butane. It is generally used as fuel in heating appliances and cooking.
  1. Correct Answer: C       Bile helps with digestion. It breaks down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract. Bile contains mostly cholesterol, bile acids (also called bile salts), and bilirubin (a breakdown product of red blood cells).
  1. Correct Answer: D      Scientists from NASA have detected the most ancient type of molecule (or, the primordial molecule) in the universe. When the universe was still very young, only a few kinds of atoms existed.Scientists believe that around 100,000 years after the big banghelium, hydrogen combined to make a molecule called helium hydride (HeH+). Later, hydrogen atoms could interact with helium hydride, leading to the creation of molecular hydrogen(H2) and thus, the formation of the first stars of the universe.
  1. Correct Answer: C     Formic Acid is present in red ants.

Nitric Acid is used in the purification of gold and silver.

Boric Acid is a constituent of eyewash.

Oxalic Acid is used to remove rust spots

  1. Correct Answer: B      Recently, the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has capped the amount of Trans Fatty Acids (TFA) or Trans fats in oils and fats to 3% for 2021 and 2% by 2022 from the current permissible limit of 5%.REPLACE trans fat is the initiative by WHO provides a strategic approach to eliminating industrially-produced trans fat from national food supplies, with the goal of global elimination y 2023. The six areas of action include:

● Review dietary sources of industrially-produced trans fat and the landscape for required policy change.

● Promote the replacement of industrially-produced trans fat with healthy fats and oils.

● Legislate or enact regulatory actions to eliminate industrially-produced trans fat.

● Assess and monitor trans-fat content in the food supply and changes in trans fat consumption in the


● Create awareness of the negative health impact of trans fat among policy-makers, producers, suppliers,

and the public.

● Enforce compliance with policies and regulations.

  1. Correct Answer: C      Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt agreed on Sunday to resume negotiations to resolve their decade-long complex dispute over the Grand Renaissance Dam hydropower project in the Horn of Africa. The Grand Renaissance Dam is being constructed by Ethiopia on the river Nile. Given the dam’s location on the Blue Nile tributary, it would allow Ethiopia to gain control of the flow of the river’s waters. Egypt lies downstream and is concerned that Ethiopia’s control over the water could result in lower water levels within its own borders. Egypt depends on the Nile for approximately 97% of its drinking water and irrigation supplies.
  1. Correct Answer: C      The US Trade Representative (USTR) recently released the ‘Special 301’ investigation report, slamming India’s digital services tax (DST). The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is responsible for developing and coordinating US international trade. Section 301 (US Trade Act) gives the USTR broad authority to investigate and respond to a foreign country’s action which may be unfair or discriminatory as well as negatively affect US commerce. It was adopted through the 1974 Trade act, the Section allows the US President to impose tariffs or other curbs on foreign nations.
  1. Correct Answer: D      Mount Semeru has erupted recently in East Java, Indonesia. Semeru is also known as “The Great Mountain” – is the highest volcano in Java and one of the most active volcanoes. Indonesia sits on the Pacific “Ring of Fire” where tectonic plates collide, causing frequent volcanic activity as well as earthquakes.
  1. Correct Answer: D       A stranded wild elephant was rescued in Nugu reservoir, close to Bandipur Tiger Reserve in Karnataka. Bandipur National Park established in 1974 as a tiger reserve under Project Tiger, is a national park located in the Indian state of Karnataka, which is the state with the second highest tiger population in India. It was once a private hunting reserve for the Maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore but has now been upgraded to Bandipur Tiger Reserve. Bandipur is known for its wildlife and has many types of biomes, but dry deciduous forest is dominant.
  1. Correct Answer: D   Pakistan has successfully conducted a flight test of Shaheen-III surface-to-surface ballistic missile capable of carrying nuclear and conventional warheads up to 2,750 kilometres.
  1. Correct Answer: A       The World Economic Forum recently released the sixteenth edition of the Global Risks Report, 2021. The report was released based on the Global Risks Perception Survey undertaken by more than 650 members of the World Economic Forum. Among the highest likelihood risks of the next ten years are extreme weather, climate action failure and human-led environmental damage; as well as digital power concentration, digital inequality and cybersecurity failure. Among the highest impact risks of the next decade, infectious diseases are in the top spot, followed by climate action failure and other environmental risks; as well as weapons of mass destruction, livelihood crises, debt crises and IT infrastructure breakdown. The report was released before the upcoming Davos Agenda Summit of World Economic Forum. The main aim of the report is to prepare the Government and other international communities during the times of crisis.
  1. Correct Answer: C    Prime Minister will address the World Economic Forum’s Davos Dialogue on 28 January via video conferencing. The Davos Dialogues agenda marks the launch of the World Economic Forum’s Great Reset Initiative in the post-Covid-19 world. Option C is correct: The Great Reset is an initiative by the World Economic Forum. It has been conceptualised by the founder and executive chairman of the WEF, Klaus Schwab, and has evolved over the last few years. It is based on the assessment that the world economy is in deep trouble.
  1. Correct Answer: A      Indo-U.S. joint military exercise ‘Yudh Abhyas’ to begin in Rajasthan on February 8. It is the 16th edition of Indo-US joint military exercise. It aims at enhancing cooperation and interoperability between the two armies and will focus on counter-terrorism operations under the United Nations mandate. It is significant in terms of security challenges faced by both the nations in the backdrop of global terrorism. It reiterates India’s key role as a key partner in the Indo-Pacific region.
  1. Correct Answer: A      Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) has launched two new technology initiatives: SAKSHAM (Shramik Shakti Manch) and Seaweed Mission. The SAKSHAM initiative has been launched by the TIFAC to dynamically map the skills of Shramiks and help MSMEs in the recruitment of appropriate personnel.
  1. Correct Answer: D        A well-known malware, Netwire is a Remote Access Trojan (RAT) which gives control of the infected system to an attacker through a command and control server. It causes extensive damage to data and systems or to gain unauthorized access to a network.
  1. Correct Answer: B       India has for the first time used the word ‘QUAD’ signalling closer alignment with other members. QUAD is an informal strategic forum of four nations named India, Japan, US and Australia. The idea of Quad was first mooted by the Japanese Prime Minister in 2007. Malabar Exercise, initiated by India and US in 1992, now includes all QUAD members as participants. Japan joined in 2015.
  1. Correct Answer: C       Carbon Watch is India’s first app to assess one’s carbon footprint. It has been launched by Chandigarh but can be accessed by all. It asks the user to feed certain data in 4 parts:

* Water: inform about the consumption of Water

* Energy: Data regarding monthly electricity units consumed and solar energy consumed

* Waste Generation: Amount of waste produced by individual and family is to be inputted

* Transport (Vehicular movement): Mode of transport like bicycle, two-wheeler or four-wheeler,

etc will be asked

  1. Correct Answer: D       Recently, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has launched “Sugamya Bharat App” and a handbook titled “Access: The Photo Digest”. It is a crowdsourcing mobile application that has been developed as a means to sensitise and enhance accessibility.
  1. Correct Answer: A       Exercise Desert Flag VI is an annual multinational large force employment warfare exercise hosted by the United Arab Emirates’ Air Force. In 2021, the Indian Air Force is participating in it for the first time along with air forces of the UAE, US, France, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and Bahrain.
  1. Correct Answer: B       It is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for the protection of plants and animal  species.  The Act provides for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants; and for matters connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It extends to all territory under the Indian government.
  1. Correct Answer: A      Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in SeptemberOctober. Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jawar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soybean.
  1. Correct Answer: C        Recently, the former Chief Secretary of West Bengal has been served a show cause notice by the Union Home Ministry under Section 51 of the Disaster Management (DM) Act, 2005.

Statement 1 is not correct: The DM Act came into existence after the 2004 tsunami and was invoked for the first time in the country in the wake of the Covid-19 in 2020.

Statement 2 is not correct: The Section 51 (b) prescribes “punishment for obstruction” for refusal to comply with orders. The violation shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term that may extend to one year or with a fine or both upon conviction. Imprisonment may be extended to two years if refusal to comply orders result in loss of lives or imminent danger.

  1. Correct Answer: D      Justice NV Ramana took the oath as the 48th Chief Justice of India (CJI) on April 24, 2021. He was administered the oath of office by President Ram Nath Kovind in a brief ceremony at the Rashtrapati Bhavan. He succeeds  Chief Justice of India SA Bobde, who retired on April 23rd
  1. Correct Answer: C      The Booker Prize of the year 2020 was won by Douglas Stuart for his debut novel “Shuggie Bain”. The shortlist of Booker Prize consisted of five more titles such as Burnt Sugar. The Burnt Sugar was published in India as “Girl in White Cotton”. It also included “The New Wilderness” by Diane Cook, “The Shadow King” by Maaza Mengiste, “This Mournable Body” by Tsitsi Dangarembga, “Real Life” by Brandon Taylor and “The Shadow King” by Maaza Mengiste.

Apart from these authors, the event also witnessed the participation of former US President Barack Obama. He recently published the first volume of his book “A Promised Land”. The book was written by Obama during his tenure as the President of the United States (2009-17).

  1. Correct Answer: C    The Principality of Andorra joined the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in October 2020 to become its 190th member state. The Republic of Nauru, a tiny South Pacific island nation, has become the 189th member of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank.
  1. Correct Answer: B     The Karman line is an attempt to define a boundary between Earth’s atmosphere and outer space. The line is named after Theodore von Kármán (1881–1963), a Hungarian American engineer and physicist, who was active primarily in aeronautics and astronautics. He was the first person to calculate the altitude at which the atmosphere becomes too thin to support aeronautical flight and arrived at 83.6 km (51.9 miles) himself.
  1. Correct Answer: B     Justice Hima Kohli was sworn in as the Chief Justice of Telangana High Court in Hyderabad. Governor Dr Tamilisai Sounderarajan administered the oath-taking ceremony of the Chief Justice at the Raj Bhavan. Justice Kohli has become the first ever woman chief justice of Telangana High Court and the first ever woman chief justice of high courts of Telugu states.