Geography test answer key

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  1. Correct option: (a)
    Explanation:  Earthquake Waves
    Earthquake waves are basically of two types – body waves and surface waves.
    Body waves: They are generated due to the release of energy at the focus and moves in all directions traveling through the body of the earth. There are two types of body waves as primary waves and secondary waves.

Primary waves (p-waves): These are the fastest body waves (twice the speed of S-waves) and are the first to reach during an earthquake. They are similar to sound waves, i.e; they are longitudinal waves, in which particle movement is in the same direction of wave propagation.
They travel through solid, liquid, and gaseous materials. They create density differences in the
earth material leading to stretching and squeezing.
Secondary waves (s-waves): They arrive at the surface with some time lag after primary waves.
 

Statement 2 is incorrect: They are slower than primary waves and can pass only through solid materials. This property of S-waves led seismologists to conclude that the earth’s outer core is in a liquid state. (the entire zone beyond 105⁰ from the epicenter does not receive S-waves) They are transverse waves in which
directions of particle movement and wave propagation are perpendicular to each other.
  Surface Waves: When the body waves interact with surface rocks, a new set of waves is generated called surface waves. Two common surface waves are Love waves and Rayleigh waves.
 

Statement 1 is correct: Love waves:
This kind of surface waves causes horizontal shifting of the earth during an earthquake.
Rayleigh waves: These waves follow an elliptical motion. A Rayleigh wave rolls along the ground just like a wave rolls across a lake or an ocean.

  1. Correct Answer: C
    Grasslands of the World:
    Prairies – North America
    Pampas – South America
    Velds – South Africa
    Canterbury – New Zealand
  1. Correct Option: (d)
    List I                         List II
    A. Lapoliths         2. A type of intrusive volcanic landforms having saucer shape.
    B. Sills                   4. A thin horizontal intrusive igneous landform.
    C. Dykes               3. A vertical walllike structure that forms after cooling of lava.
    D. Deccan Trap    1. It is an example of Flood Basalt Province.

Supplementary notes:
Volcano
A volcano is a place where gases, ashes and/ or molten rock material ‘ lava’ escape to the ground through fissures and faults, etc.  It is from asthenosphere that the molten rock materials find their way to the surface.
If the materials remain below the surface, it is called magma.  If the materials find a way to come out on the surface, it is called lava.
These magma and lava form different types of structure called Volcanic Landforms. These landforms can be extrusive, or intrusive. Extrusive Landforms  The structure formed by Lava and other materials such as Ashes and Pyroclastic materials is called extrusive landforms.
These include Shield Volcano, Composite Volcano, Caldera, and Flood Basalt Province, etc.
The Shield Volcanoes are formed if the lava has low viscosity. Hence, they are not steep. After the Basalt province, the shield volcanoes are the largest of all the volcanoes. Examples are Mauna Loa, Hawaiian Islands, USA, and Galapagos Islands.
 

Composite Volcanoes form in many years after multiple eruptions. These volcanoes contain pyroclastic materials and ashes other than the thick and highly viscous magmatic lava. Examples are Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount St. Helens.

When a large amount of magma erupts in a short time the rock underlying the magma collapses. This result in depressions, called Caldera. These are the most explosive in nature.
Highly fluid lava, made of basalt when erupting on the surface, it forms a flood basaltic province. The Deccan Trap is one such example. Intrusive landforms
When the magma remains within the lithosphere, cools over there and forms different types of structure, are called intrusive landforms. These include Lacoliths, Phacoliths, Lapoliths, Sills, Dykes, and Batholiths, etc.
Large bodies of magmatic material that cools in the deeper depth of the crust and develop in the form of large domes are Batholiths. These are the cooled portion of magma chambers.  Lacoliths are large dome-shaped intrusive bodies with a level base and connected by a pipe-like conduit from below.
When the lava makes its way through cracks and the fissures developed in the land, it solidifies almost perpendicular to the ground. It gets cooled in the same position to develop a wall-like structure. Such structures are called dykes. These are the most commonly found intrusive forms in the western Maharashtra area.
Sills, unlike dykes, are thin horizontal intrusive igneous landform.  Lapoliths are intrusive volcanic landforms having saucer shape and concave to the sky.

  1. Correct option: (a)
    Explanation: Mountain Peaks
    Option (a) is correct: Anai Mudi, Doda Betta, Brahmagiri, Mahabaleshwar.
  1. Correct option: (d)
    Explanation: La Nina
    Statement 1 is incorrect: During La Nina temperature at the sea surface is cooler than normal sea-surface temperatures. La Nina exists when cooler than usual ocean temperatures occur on the equator between South America and the Date Line.

 Statement 2 is incorrect: El Nino accompanies high air surface pressure in the western Pacific.

Feature El-Nino La-Nina
MeaningEl Nino is a Spanish term which
represents “little boy”
La Nina is a Spanish term which represents ‘little girl’.
Temperature
at Sea
Surface
The temperature at sea surface is warmer than normal sea-surface
temperatures. El Nino is a warming of the Pacific Ocean between South America and
the Date Line, centred directly on the Equator, and typically extending several degrees of latitude to either side of the equator.
Temperature at sea surface is cooler than
normal sea surface tem peratures. La Nina exists when cooler than usual ocean tem
peratures occur on the equator between South America and the Date Line.
Pressure It accompanies high air surface
pressure in the western Pacific
It accompanies low air surface pressure in
the eastern Pacific
Trade windsEl Niño occurs when tropical Pacific Ocean trade winds die
out and ocean temperatures become unusually warm
La Nina, which occurs when the trade winds blow unusually hard and the sea temperature become colder than normal
SeasonsWinters are warmer and drier than average in the Northwest
of pacific, and wetter in Southwest of pacific and experience reduced snowfalls.
Winters are wetter and cause above-average precipitation across the Northwest of pacific
and drier and below-average precipitation in South west of the pacific. 
Coriolis force El Nino results in a decrease in the earth’s rotation rate (very minimal), an increase in the  length of the day, and therefore a decrease in the strength of the Coriolis forceLa Nina results in an increase in the earth’s rotation rate, a decrease in the length of day, and therefore an increase in the strength of the  Coriolis force.
Ocean waters
in Pacific
Warm water approaches the coasts of South America which results in reduced upwelling of
nutrient-rich deep water impacting impacts on the fish
populations.
Cold water causes increased upwelling of
deep cold ocean waters numbers of drought
occurrence, with more nutrient-filled eastern Pacific waters.
  1. Correct option: (c)
    Explanation: Jet Streams
    Statement 1 is incorrect: A jet stream develops where air masses of different temperatures meet. Therefore, the surface temperatures determine where the jet stream will form. The greater the difference in temperature, the faster the wind velocity inside the jet stream.

Statement 2 is correct: Circumpolar: Jet streams are winds that circle around the earth with poles as their centers.  Narrow, concentrated bands: The stream of air is very narrow (50 -150 km across) and the air in the stream is directed towards the axis of the stream making it very narrow.

Statement 3 is correct: Rossby Waves: The meandering jet streams are called Rossby Waves. They are a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere and oceans due to the rotation of the earth.  In planetary atmospheres, they are due to the variation in the Coriolis Effect (When temperature contrast is low, speed of the jet stream is low, and Coriolis force is weak leading to meandering) with latitude. Rossby waves are formed when polar air moves toward the Equator while tropical air is moving poleward. The existence of these waves explains the low-pressure cells (cyclones) and high-pressure cells (anticyclones).

  1. Correct option: (d)
    Explanation: International Date Line (IDL)

    A traveler going eastwards gains time from Greenwich until he reaches the meridian 180°E when he will be 12 hours ahead of G.M.T.
    Statement 1 is incorrect: Similarly in going westwards, he loses 12 hours when he reaches 180°W. There is thus a total difference of 24 hours or a whole day between the two sides of the 180° meridian.
    This is the International Date Line where the date changes by exactly one day when it is crossed. A traveler crossing the dateline from east to west loses a day (because of the loss in time he has made), and while crossing the dateline from west to east he gains a day (because of the
    the gain in time he encountered).  The International Date Line (IDL) passes through the Pacific Ocean. It is an imaginary line, like longitudes and latitudes.
    The time difference on either side of this line is 24 hours. So, the date changes as soon as one crosses this line.

Statement 2 is incorrect: Some groups of Islands (Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia) fall on either of the dateline. So if the dateline was straight, then two regions of the same Island Country or Island group would fall under different date zones. Thus to avoid any confusion of date, this line is drawn through where the sea lies and not land. Hence, the IDL is drawn in a zig-zag manner.

  1. Correct option: (a)
    Explanation: Agricultural revolutions in India
    Option (a) is correct:

Agricultural Related with revolutions in India
A. Yellow Revolution 2. Oil Seed Production
B. Blue Revolution 1. Fish Production
C. Silver Revolution 4. Egg Production
D. White Revolution 3. Dairy, Milk Production

Black Revolution Related with Petroleum Production
Blue Revolution Related with Fish Production
Brown Revolution Related with Leather, Cocoa
Golden Fibre RevolutionRelated with Jute Production
Golden RevolutionRelated with Overall Horticulture, Honey, Fruit Production
Green Revolution Related with Agriculture Production
Grey Revolution Related with Fertilizers
Pink Revolution Related with Onions, Prawn
Red Revolution Related with Meat, Tomato Production
Evergreen RevolutionIntended for overall agriculture production growth
Round Revolution Related with Potato Production
Silver Fibre RevolutionRelated with Cotton Production
Silver Revolution Related with Egg Production
White Revolution Related with Dairy, Milk Production
Yellow Revolution Related with Oil Seed Production
Round Revolution Related with Potato
  1. Correct option: (b)
    Explanation: Solar System
    Option (b) is correct: The light from the Sun actually contains all the colors in the spectrum, from red and yellow to blue and green. Sunlight hits Uranus and is absorbed by its atmosphere. Some of the light is reflected by the clouds and bounces back into space. The methane in the clouds of Uranus is more likely to absorb colors at the red end of8 spectrum, and more likely to reflect backlight at the blue-green end of the spectrum. This is the reason Uranus appears blue.
  1. Correct option: (d)
    Explanation:  Soil Conservation Techniques in India
    All the statements are correct: 

Crop Rotation: Cover crops such as legumes plant, white turnip, radishes, and other species are rotated with cash crops to blanket the soil year-round and act as green manure that replenishes nitrogen and other critical nutrients. Cover crops also help suppress weeds.
Sand fences are a simple and cheap method of inducing the accretion of sands in arid and sandy areas. These fences principally consisted of xerophytic plants and wooden barricades.
Terracing is the practice of creating nearly level areas in a hillside area. The terraces form a series of steps, each at a higher level than the previous. Terraces are protected from erosion by other soil barriers. Terraced farming is more common on small farms and in underdeveloped countries since mechanized equipment is difficult to deploy in this setting.
Windbreaks are sufficiently dense rows of trees at the windward exposure of an agricultural field subject to wind erosion. Evergreen species provide year-round protection; however, as long as foliage is present in the seasons of bare soil surfaces, the effect of deciduous trees may be adequate.

  1. Correct option: (c)
    Explanation: Difference between a meteor, a meteoroid, a meteorite: 

A meteor is the flash of light that we see in the night sky when a small chunk of interplanetary debris burns up as it passes through our atmosphere. “Meteor” refers to the flash of light caused by the debris, not the debris itself. The debris is called a meteoroid. A meteoroid is a piece of interplanetary matter that is smaller than a kilometer and frequently only millimeters in size. Most meteoroids that enter the Earth’s atmosphere are so small that they vaporize completely and never reach the planet’s surface.
 

Option (c) is correct: If any part of a meteoroid survives the fall through the atmosphere and lands on Earth, it is called a meteorite. Although the vast majority of meteorites are very small, their size can range from about a fracƟon of a gram (the size of a pebble) to 100 kilograms (220 lbs) or more (the size of a huge, life-destroying boulder).

  1. Correct option: (b)
    Explanation: Largest brackish water Lake of India
    Option (b) is correct: 

Chilika Lake –  It is Asia’s largest brackish water lagoon. It is the largest coastal lagoon in India and the second largest coastal lagoon in the world
It lies in Odisha state on the eastern coast of India, at the mouth of the Daya River flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Because of its rich bio-diversity and socio-economic importance, Chilika was designated as a Ramsar site in 1981 to afford better protection.
It was the first water body in Indian to be designated as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.
It is the largest wintering ground for migratory birds on the Indian subcontinent. It was put under Montreux Record (record for such sites where there has been or likely to be adverse ecological change due to manmade activities), but was later removed from it due to conservation efforts.

Rambha sector in the Chilika Lake is the ideal sector for dolphins to play, flock and mate because of the stillness of the water in the bay area.
Chilika, known for its exquisite natural beauty, attracts many tourists because of its dolphin population.

  1. Correct option: (b)
    Explanation:
    Option (b) is correct:
    2. Haldia
    1. Paradip
    3. Ennore
    4. Chennai
Sea Port Name Location
Chennai Port or Madras Port Chennai, Madras
Haldia (Kolkata Dock System & Haldia Dock Complex) Kolkata
Jawaharlal Nehru Port, also known as Nhava Sheva Maharashtra, South Mumbai
Kamarajar Port or Ennore Port Ennore, Chennai
Deendayal Port Trust (Kandla) Gujarat, Gulf of Kutch
Kochi Port or Cochin Port Kochi, Kerala
New Mangalore Port Manglore, Karnataka
Mormugao Port Panaji, Goa
Mumbai Port West Mumbai, Maharashtra
Panaji Panaji Goa
Paradip Jagatsinghpur, Odisha
Tuticorin Port (now called V.O.Chidambaram Port) Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu
Visakhapatnam Port Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh
  1. Correct option: (c)
    Explanation:

Atacama Desert
Option (c) is correct: 

The Atacama Desert in South America is considered to be the driest coastal desert in the world. According to geographers, the Atacama Desert is a virtually rainless plateau in South America, situated in the west of the Andes Mountains.


The Atacama Desert, occupying a land of 105,000 square kilometers, lies in the Chilean region called Antofagasta which receives little annual rainfall measuring 0.04 inches. There are some weather stations in this area which have never recorded rain. It is also estimated by research studies that the area didn’t receive any rainfall from 1570 to 1971.


The Atacama Desert borders the Pacific Ocean to its west and the Andes mountains to its east. It is strange to note that the Atacama Desert lies very close to the Pacific Ocean while the Amazon rainforest lies on the other side of the Andes Mountains, but still there has been extremely minimal rainfall and the area is dry all year long. This is because the Andes Mountains prevent all clouds and moisture from moving over to the Atacama. The area also has a harsh climate with temperatures ranging from 0 degree Celsius to 25 degree Celsius. The climate of this area is so parched that even bacteria cannot survive for long.

  1. Correct option: (d)
    Explanation:  Passes of Greater Himalayas
    Option (d) is correct:
    Passes of Greater State Himalayas
    (A) Burzil Pass          2. Jammu and Kashmir
    (B) Bara Lacha La    1. Himachal Pradesh
    (C) Nathu La             4. Sikkim
    (D) Lipu Lekh            3. Uttarakhand
State Passes of Greater Himalayas
Jammu and
Kashmir
Burzil Pass, Zoji La [La means pass]
Himachal
Pradesh
Bara Lacha La, Shipki La [The Hindustan-Tibet Road connecting Shimla with Gartok in Western Tibet]
Uttarakhand Thaga La, Niti Pass, Lipu Lekh
Sikkim Nathu La, Jelep La [important trade route connecting Kalimpong (near Darjeeling) with Lhasa in Tibet, passes through Jelep La (4,386 m)]
  1. Correct option: (a)
    Explanation: Soils in India
    Statement 1 is correct: 

Mainly found in the plains of Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand etc.
Statement 2 is incorrect: 

Black (Regur soil) is rich in Lime, Iron, Magnesia and Alumina, Potash and lacks in Phosphorous, Nitrogen and organic matter.
Statement 3 is incorrect: Black (Regur soil) is also known as ‘self-ploughing’ soil.
Statement 4 is in\qcorrect: Red soil is suitable for cultivation of wheat, sugarcane, rice, cotton and pulses.

Types of
Soils
States where
found
Rich in: Lacks in: Crops grown
Alluvial Mainly found in the
plains of Gujarat,
Punjab, Haryana,
UP, Bihar,
Jharkhand etc.
Potash and
Lime
Nitrogen and
Phosphorous
Large variety of rabi and
kharif crops such as wheat,
rice, sugarcane, cotton,
jute etc.
Black
(Regur soil)
Deccan plateau
Maharashtra,
Madhya Pradesh,
Gujarat, Andhra
Pradesh, Tamil
Nadu, Valleys of
Krishna and
Godavari.
Lime, Iron,
Magnesia
and
Alumina,
Potash
Phosphorous,
Nitrogen and
organic matter
Cotton, sugarcane, jowar,
tobacco, wheat, rice etc.
Red Eastern and
southern part of
the
Deccan plateau,
Orissa, Chhattisgarh
and southern parts
of the middle
Ganga plain.
Iron and
Potash
Nitrogen,
Phosphorous
and
Humus.
Wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane
and pulses
Laterite Karnataka, Kerala,
Tamilnadu, Madhya
Pradesh, Assam and
Orissa hills.
Iron oxide
and
potash
Organic matter,
Nitrogen,
Phosphate
and Calcium
Cashewnuts, tea, coffee,
rubber
Arid and
Desert
Western Rajasthan,
north Gujarat and
southern Punjab
Soluble
salts,
phosphate
Humus,
Nitrogen
Only drought resistant
and salt tolerant crops
such as barley, rape, cotton,
millets maize and
pulses
Saline and
Alkaline
Western Gujarat,
deltas of eastern
coast, Sunderban
areas of West
Bengal, Punjab and
Haryana
Sodium,
Potassium,
Magnesium
Nitrogen and
Calcium
Unfit for agriculture
  1. Correct option: (b)
    Explanation: Indian Islands
    Andaman and Nicobar Islands
    The Andaman and Nicobar islands extend from 6° 45′ N to 13° 45′ N and from 92° 10′ E to 94° 15′ E for a distance of about 590 km.
    The Andaman Islands are divided into three main islands i.e. North, Middle and South.

Statement 1 is incorrect: 

Duncan passage separates Little Andaman from South Andaman.

Statement 2 is incorrect: 

The Great Andaman group of islands in the north is separated by the Ten Degree Channel from the Nicobar group in the south. Port Blair, the capital of Andaman Nicobar Islands lies in the South Andaman. Among the Nicobar Islands, the Great Nicobar is the largest. It is the southernmost island and is very close to Sumatra island of Indonesia. The Car Nicobar is the northernmost.

Most of these islands are made of tertiary sandstone, limestone and shale resting on basic and ultrabasic volcanoes (Similar to Himalayas).
The Barren and Narcondam Islands, north of Port Blair, are volcanic islands (these are the only active volcanoes in India). Saddle peak (737 m) in North Andaman is the highest peak.
Lakshadweep Islands Lakshadweep Islands situated in the Arabian Sea is a group of 36 islands having an area of 32 square kilometres and extending between 8⁰ N and 12⁰ N latitude.

The Lakshadweep Islands group is a Union Territory administered by the President through a Lt. Governor. It is the smallest Union Territory of India. Kavaratti is the administrative capital of the Lakshadweep Islands. It is also the principal town of the Union Territory. It is a uni-district Union Territory and comprises 12 atolls, three reefs, five submerged banks and ten inhabited islands.

Statement 3 is correct: 

These islands are a part of Reunion Hotspot volcanism.
The entire Lakshadweep islands group is made up of coral deposits. Fishing is the main occupation on which the livelihoods of many people depend.
The Lakshadweep islands have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders0Minicoy Island, located to the south of nine-degree channel is the largest island among the Lakshadweep group. 

 Statement 4 is correct:

8 Degree Channel (8 degrees north latitude) separates islands of Minicoy and Maldives.
9 Degree Channel (9 degrees north latitude) separates the island of Minicoy from the main Lakshadweep archipelago.
In Lakshadweep region, there is an absence of forests. Pitti Island is an important breeding place
for sea turtles and for a number of pelagic birds such as the brown noddy, lesser crested tern and greater crested tern.

The Pitti Island has been declared a bird sanctuary

  1. Correct option: (b)
    Explanation:Sea Floor Spreading
    Statement 1 is incorrect: 

The hypothesis of ‘Sea-Floor Spreading’ which proves the theory of Continental drift was put
forward jointly by Harry H. Hess and Robert Deitz in 1960.
According to Hess, the submarine mountain ranges (Mid-Ocean Ridges) were direct results of upwelling flows of magma from the Asthenosphere.
 

Statement 2 is correct: 

When magma rises from below, the earth’s crust is fractured. The magma spills out and cools to form new seafloor, building the ridges and spreading laterally.
The following three important facts were established by Hess:
The crust below the ocean floor was found to be only 6 to 7 km thick, whereas below the continental surface it was 30 to 40 km.
Mid-Oceanic Ridges were present in all the oceans.
The ocean floors, nowhere, were found to be older than 135 million years, though the oceans are 3.9 billion (3900 million) years old.
Ocean floor is constantly regenerated at the mid-ocean ridges and subjected to continents lateral spreading until it is destroyed in the trenches.

Following are the Evidence for SeaFlooring Spreading:
Occurrence of earthquakes along the crust of Mid-Ocean Ridges.
The dearth of sediments at the crest of Mid-Ocean Ridges and active volcanic islands like Iceland and Canary Islands.
Thickness of the sedimentary deposits increases away from the Mid-Oceanic Ridges.
There is reversal in the main magnetic field of the earth known as ‘magnetic dipole’ (magnetic field).
The normal and reverse magnetic anomalies are found in alternate manners on either side of the Mid-Ocean Ridges. Following Inferences can be down from the evidence:
There is continuous spreading of seafloor.

The basaltic crust (igneous) is continuously formed along the Mid-Oceanic Ridges.
The newly formed basaltic layer is divided into two equal halves and thus displaced away from the Mid-Oceanic Ridge.
Alternate stripes of positive and negative magnetic anomalies are found on either side of the Mid-Oceanic ridges.

  1. Correct option: (a)
    Explanation:  Saline and Alkaline Soils
    Option (a) is correct: 

Saline and Alkaline Soils:
Saline and Alkaline soils are found in the arid and semi-arid parts of
Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
These soils are characterised by white incrustation of salts of calcium, magnesium and sodium on the surface.
These soils are known by different names such as ‘reh’, ‘usar’, ‘kallar’, ‘chopan’, etc.
Accumulation of salt makes this soil unfertile and unsuitable for agricultural production.

  1.  Correct option: (b)
    Explanation: Discontinuities within the Earth’s Interior
    Statement 1 is correct: Mohorovicic discontinuity:  The Mohorovicic Discontinuity, or “Moho,” is the boundary between the crust and the mantle.
    Statement 2 is incorrect: Lehmann discontinuity: The Lehmann discontinuity is an abrupt increase of P-wave and S-wave velocities at the depth of 220±30 km, discovered by seismologist Inge Lehmann. It appears beneath continents, but not usually beneath oceans, and does not readily appear in globally averaged studies. It is generally found between the outer and inner core.
    Statement 3 is incorrect:  Gutenberg discontinuity: The Gutenberg discontinuity occurs within Earth’s interior at a depth of about 1,800 mi (2,900 km) below the surface, generally between mantle and core ,where there is an abrupt change in the seismic waves (generated by earthquakes or explosions) that travel
    through Earth. Conrad discontinuity: The Conrad discontinuity corresponds to the subhorizontal boundary in continental crust at which the seismic wave velocity increases in a discontinuous way. This boundary is observed in various continental regions at a depth of 15 to 20 km, between outer and inner crust, however it is not found in oceanic regions. Repetti Discontinuity: This discontinuity is found between upper and lower Mantle. This is marked by a general decrease in velocity of seismic waves between upper and lower.
  2. Correct option: (c)
    Explanation: Depositional Landforms due to Glaciers Drumlins
    Statement 1 is correct: 

They are smooth oval-shaped ridge-like structures composed mainly of glacial till.
Statement 2 is correct:

It shapes like an inverted spoon with the highest part called Stoss End and the lowest The narrow part is called Tail End. They are formed as a result of glacial movement over some minor obstruction like small surface rocks. The glacial till gets deposited in those obstructions and the movement of glacier shapes these deposits like an inverted spoon.

  1.  Correct option: (d)
    Explanation:Regional Distribution of Himalayas
    Statement 3 is correct:

The Kashmir / Punjab/ Himachal Himalayas: Kashmir Himalayas lies between Indus River
and Sutlej. A significant portion of the Himalayas lies in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. This is also known as Punjab Himalayas.

Statement 1 is correct: 

The Kumaun Himalayas: 

This division lies between the Satluj and Kali River.The highest peak in this division is Nanda Devi. Important peaks in this region are Nanda Devi, Trisul, Kedarnath, Dunagiri, Kamet, Badrinath, Jaonli, Gangotri, and Bandarpunch. Pindari, Gangotri, and Milam are the important glaciers in this division. The major hill stations are Mussorie, Nainital, Ranikhet, Almora, and Bageshwar. The important passes are Thaga La, Muling La, Mana, Mangsha Dhura and Lipu Lekh.


Statement 2 is correct: 

The Central/Nepal Himalayas: 

This division stretches from Kali River to Tista River. Major part of it lies in Nepal except for the extreme eastern part- Sikkim Himalayas. The important peaks are Mt. Everest, Kanchenjunga, Makalu, Dhaula giri, Annapurna, Manasuly, and Gosainath. Nathu La and Jelep La are the important passes in this region. 

The Assam/ Eastern Himalayas: 

This division lies between Tista and the Brahmaputra River (Dihang). It occupies the state of Arunachal Pradesh in India and Bhutan. On the southern border of Arunachal Pradesh, it takes a southerly turn and ranges are arranged in North-South direction passing through Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram and Tripura called Purvanchal. The Purvanchal is joined by Meghalaya Plateau in the west and its extension of the Myanmar mountain chain continues to Andaman and Nicobar islands and to the Archipelago of Indonesia.

  1. Correct Answer: C
    The Bhakra-Nangal multipurpose dams are located in the state of Himachal Pradesh and named
    after the two dams built at Bhakra and Nangal on the Sutlej River .
    The project comprises of 

(i) two dams at Bhakra and Nangal, 

(ii) Nangal Hydel Channel, 

(iii) power houses with a combined installed capacity of 1,204 megawatt (M.W.) 

(iv) Electric transmission lines and 

(v) Bhakra canal system for irrigation.


It is one of the earliest river valley development schemes undertaken by India after independence although the project had been conceived long before that, in the early 1900s.The project has also been an important factor in the inter-state dispute between India and Pakistan, ultimately resolved with the Indus Treaty in 1960, under the aegis of the World Bank and with the benevolence of the USA.

  1. Correct Answer: D
    There are many types of irrigation systems, in which water is supplied to the entire field uniformly. Irrigation water can come from groundwater, through springs or wells, surface water, through rivers, lakes, or reservoirs, or even other sources, such as treated wastewater or
    desalinated water.
    As a result, it is critical that farmers protect their agricultural water source to minimize the
    potential for contamination.
  1. Correct Answer: A
    Olericulture is a branch of horticulture that deals with the production, storage, processing, and
    marketing of vegetables.
  1. Correct Answer: D
    Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway located in Egypt between Port Said in the north and Port Suez in the south linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It gives Europe a new gateway to the Indian Ocean and reduces direct sea-route distance between Liverpool and Colombo compared to the Cape of Good Hope route. 

One of the most crucial maritime gateways in the western region, the Panama Canal provides connectivity between the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean through the Panama isthmus – a narrow strip that separates the Caribbean Sea from the Pacific Ocean. Since the oceans that the canal connects with are not at the same level, the canal uses Lock Gates on either side to lift the vessel to the higher level and similarly to drop down to the sea level. Connecting the Baltic Sea with the North Sea, the Kiel Canal passes through the German province of Schleswig-Holstein. Opened in 1895, the 98 km-long Kiel Canal helps vessels to bypass the longer route that passes via Denmark (peninsula of Jutland), which is regarded as quite an unstable maritime route, saving an average of 250 nautical miles.

  1. Correct Answer: A
    There are four types of Iron ore qualities – Haematite, Magnetite, Limonite and Siderite
    Haematite – It is reddish, and have more than 70% of metallic content
    Magnetite – It is black in colour with 60-70% of metallic content. It acts as a natural magnet.
    Limonite – It is yellowish in colour with 40 – 60% of metal.
    Siderite – It has less than 40% of metal content.
  1. Correct Answer: D
    In the Indian subcontinent, the crops grown on irrigated lands which do not have to wait for monsoons, in the short duration between Rabi and Kharif crop season, mainly from March to June, are called Zaid crops (also written as Zayad crops ). These crops are grown mainly in the summer season during a period called the “Zayad crop season.” They require warm dry weather for a major growth period and longer day length for flowering. The main produce are seasonal fruits and vegetables.
    Rice is a Kharif crop but its seeds are sown in Zaid season. In Zaid season the seeds grow into saplings. These saplings are plucked and then transplanted in paddy field manually in Kharif season.
  1. Correct Answer: C
    Factors Influencing the Distribution of Population
    · Geographical factors:  Availability of water, Landforms,  Climate,  Soils
    · Economic Factors:   Minerals  Urbanization  Industrialisation  Social and Cultural Factors
  1. Correct Answer: D
    Population Pyramid
    A population pyramid, also called an “age pyramid”, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing. This tool can be used to visualize and age composition of a particular population.
    Population pyramids are often viewed as the most effective way to graphically depict the age and distribution of a population, partly because of the very clear image these pyramids represent.

A great deal of information about the population broken down by age and sex can be read from a population pyramid, and this can shed light on the extent of development and other aspects of the population. A population pyramid also tells how many people of each age range live in the area. 

There tends to be more females than males in the older age groups, due to females’ longer life expectancy. Population pyramid gives a clear picture of how a country transitions from high fertility to low fertility rate. The population pyramid here indicates stage 2 on the demographic transition. The broad base of the pyramid means the majority of population lies between ages 0–14, which tells us that the fertility rate of the country is high and above population sub-replacement fertility level. There is a higher dependency ratio of younger population over the working population. Moreover, there is lesser older population due to shorter life expectancy which is around 60 years.

  1. Correct Answer: B
    Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) News: 

ASEAN countries are keen to have India as part of the partnership and have made India a concessional offer of opening up only about 83% of its market, as compared to the original 92% that the RCEP agreement stipulated About
· RCEP is a proposed trade agreement between the 10 Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) countries and their six free trade agreement partners, namely Australia, China, India, Japan, Korea, and New Zealand.
· The grouping would comprise 25% of global GDP, 30% of global trade, 26% of FDI flows, and 45% of the population.

  1. Correct Answer: D
  1. Ans: A  he winds of high plateaus that descend or drain into the valleys are known as mountain winds, katabatic winds and air drainage.
  1. Ans: C Un-assorted coarse and fine debris dropped by melting glaciers are called glacial till. Most of the rock fragments in the till are angular to sub-angular in form.
  1. Ans: C  · It acts perpendicular to the pressure gradient force.
    · At the equator, coriolis force is zero and the wind blows perpendicular to the isobars
    · The coriolis force is directly proportional to the angle of latitude.
    · The more the velocity of the wind, the larger is the deflection in the direction of the wind.
  1. Ans: C   · Shield volcanoes are mostly made up of basalt, a type of lava that is very fluid when erupted.
    · Shield volcanoes are not steep and are characterized by low explosivity.
    · Composite volcanoes are characterized by eruptions of cooler and more viscous lavas.
    · Composite volcanoes often result in explosive eruptions.
  1. Ans: D   The forces that influence weathering are
    · Gravitational forces such as overburden pressure load and shearing stress.
    · Expansion force due to temperature changes.
    · Water pressure by wetting and drying.
  1. Ans: C: · Maximum insolation is received over the subtropical deserts, where the cloudiness is the least.
    · The Equator receives comparatively less insolation than the tropics.
    · Generally, at the same latitude the insolation is more over the continent than over the oceans.
    · Conduction takes place when two bodies of unequal temperature are in contact with one another.
    · There is a flow of energy from the warmer to cooler body.
    · The transfer of heat continues until both the bodies attain the same temperature or the contact is broken.
  1. Ans: D The following factors affect temperature distribution at a particular place:
    · Presence of ocean currents.
    · Air mass circulations.
    · Distance from the sea.
    · Latitude and altitude of the place
  1. Ans: D –Ideal situations for temperature inversion are · Long winter night · Clear sky · Still air
  1. Ans: B · Thunderstorms are of short duration and are violent.
    · They are caused by intense convection on moist hot days.
    · It is a well grown cumulonimbus cloud producing thunder and lightning.
    · It can generate dust storms, if there is insufficient moisture.
  1. Ans: D Ideal conditions of Dew formation: · High relative humidity · Clear sky · Calm air · Long nights
  1. Ans: A · Stratus clouds are layered clouds covering large portions of sky. These clouds are generally formed either due to loss of heat or the mixing of air masses with different temperatures.
  1. Ans: D · The time between high tide and low tide, when the water level is falling, is called the
    ebb.
    · The time between the low tide and high tide when the tide is rising, is called the flow.
    · Tides are helpful in de-silting the sediments and in removing polluted water from river estuaries.
  1. Ans: D –· Ozone is triatomic oxygen that exists in the earth’s atmosphere as a gas.
    · Its concentration is higher in the stratosphere where it absorbs the sun’s ultraviolet radiation.
    · There is a sharp seasonal decrease in the concentration as a result of complex chemical reaction in the atmosphere that involves CFCs.
  1. Ans: (c) Tropical deciduous forests are found in larger parts of our country. These forests are also called monsoon forests. They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year. Important trees of these forests are sal, teak, peepal, Neem and shisham. They are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and in Parts of Maharashtra
  1. Ans: (c) -· The chiru or the Tibetan Antelope is an endangered species. It is hunted for its wool known as shahtoosh, which is lightweight and extremely warm.
  1. Ans: (c) – · MSP is declared by the Government every year before the sowing season to provide incentives to the farmers for raising the production of crops.
    · It will reduce farmer’s debt and suicide.
  1. Ans: (d) -· The temperate grasslands of North America are known as prairies. It is a region of flat, gently sloping or hills.
    · The prairies are bound by Rocky mountains in the west and the great lakes in the east.
    · The grasslands of prairies are the home of native Americans often called “Red Indians’.
  1. Ans: (b) · The Ganga Basin lies in the Subtropical region that is situated between 100N and 300N latitudes.
    · The tributaries of River Ganga are, the Ghagra, the son, the Gandak the kosi.
  1. Ans: (d) -· This Mediterranean vegetation is mostly found around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. Also found in California, southwest Africa, South Western, South America and South West Australia. These Areas are marked for hot dry summers and mild rainy waters.
    · Citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes are commonly cultivated here.
    · This region is known as ‘orchards of the world’ for their Fruit cultivation.
  1. Ans: (d) – The Himalayan Mountains are divided into three main parallel ranges. The Northern Most are the Great Himalaya or Himadri. The World’s highest peak are located in this range. The Middle Himalaya or Himachal lies to the south of Himadri. Many popular Hill stations are situated here. The Shiwalik is the Southernmost range.
  1. Ans: (b) 
  1. Ans: (d) – · A plateau is an elevated flat land. It is a flat-topped table land standing above the surrounding area. A plateau may have one or more sides with steep slopes.
    · Plateaus are very useful because they are rich in mineral deposits. The African Plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining. In India huge reserves of iron, coal and manganese are found in the Chotta Nagpur plateau
    · The lava plateau are rich in Black soil that are fertile and good for cultivation. Many plateaus have scenic spots and are great attraction to tourists.
  1. Ans: (a) – Block mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
    The uplifted blocks are termed as horsts and the lowered blocks are called graben.
    The rhine valley and Vosges mountain in Europe are examples of such mountain systems.
  1. Ans: (c) –Air pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by the weight of air on the earth’s surface. As we go up the layers of the atmosphere, the pressure falls rapidly. The air pressure is highest at sea level and decreases with height. On the moon, there is no air and hence no air pressure.
  1. Ans: (c) -· During the summer solstice, the north pole is inclined towards the sun and the places beyond the Arctic Circle experience continuous daylight for about six months. Since a large portion of the Northern hemisphere is getting light from the sun, it is summer in the regions north of the equator. The longest day and shortest night at these places occur on 21st June.
    · On 22nd December, the Tropic of Capricorn receives direct rays of the sun as the south pole tilts towards it. Therefore it is summer in the southern hemisphere with longer days and shorter nights. The reverse happens in the Northern Hemisphere.
  1. Ans: (c) A year is usually divided into summer, winter, spring and autumn seasons. Seasons
    change due to the change in the position of earth around the sun i.e. Revolution of
    Earth.
  1. Ans: (d) -Troposphere is where almost all the weather phenomena like rainfall, fog and hailstorm occur here.
    In the stratosphere the layer is almost free from clouds and associated weather phenomenon. This is ideal for flying airplanes.
    Mesosphere extends upto height of 80km. Meteors burn up in this layer when entering from space.
    Thermosphere layer helps in radio transmission. In fact, radio waves transmitted from the earth are reflected back to the earth by this layer.
  1. Ans: (a) – Sea waves continuously strike at the rocks. Cracks develop over time they become larger and wider. Thus hollow-like caves are formed on the rocks. They are called sea caves. As these cavities become bigger and bigger only the roof of the caves remain thus forming sea arches. Further erosion breaks the roof and only walls are left. These wall life features are called stacks. The steep rocky coast rising almost vertically above seawater is called sea cliff.
  1.  Ans: (c) – The Landscape is being continuously worn away by two processes: weathering and erosion. Weathering is the breaking up of rocks on the earth’s surface. Erosion is the wearing away of land by different agents like water, wind and ice.
    · The eroded material is carried away or transported by water, wind, etc, and eventually deposited.
    · This process of erosion and deposition create different landforms on the surface of the earth.
  1. Ans: (a) – · Inner Planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars and are made of rocks.
    · Outer planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune and are made of gases and liquids.
    · Asteroid Belt is located between Mars and Jupiter.
  1. Ans: (a) –  When molten lava comes on the earth’s surface, it rapidly cools down and becomes solid. Rocks formed in such a way on the crust are called extrusive igneous rock. They have very fine grained structure. For example Basalt.
    · Solid rocks formed inside the earth crust are called intrusive igneous rocks eg:- Granite.
    · Sedimentary rocks are made of sediments compressed and hardened to form layers of rock. Eg:- Fossils of plants, animals.
  1. Ans: (A) -· It is the largest Peninsular River.
    · It rises from the slopes of the Western Ghats in the Nasik district of Maharashtra.
    · The tributaries of this river include River Purna, River Wardha, River Pranhita, River Manjra, and River Penganga.
    · It is also known as the “Dakshin Ganga”.
  1. Ans: (C) – The coal which we are using today was formed millions of years ago when giant ferns and swamps got buried under the layers of earth. Coal is therefore referred to as ‘Buried Sunshine’.
    · Petroleum and its derivatives are called Black Gold.
  1. Ans: (B) – Milpa – Mexico ·, Roca- Brazil ,· Ladang-Malaysia
  1. Ans: (A) -· Mahawat refers to Winter rainfall.
  1. Ans: (D)  To understand the mechanism of the monsoons, the following facts are important.
    1. The differential heating and cooling of land and water.
    2. The shift of position of Inter Tropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
    3. The present of High pressure area, east of Madagascar.
    4. The Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated during summer.
    5. The movement of western Jet Stream to the North of the Himalayas and presence of tropical easterly jet stream over the Indian Peninsula during summer.
  1. Ans: (D) -· Heat energy produced from the earth is known as Geo- thermal energy.
    · Geothermal power plants in India are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga valley in Ladakh.
  1. Ans: D · Indian plate is moving at a speed of one centimeter per year towards the northeastern direction and is obstructed by Eurasian plate from the north.
    · India has been divided into five earthquake zones by the Government of India.
  1. Ans: C – · In the Great Himalayan range, the valleys are inhabited by Bhotia tribes.
    · These tribes are nomadic groups who migrate to Bugyals.
    · Bugyals are summer grasslands in the higher reaches.
  1. Ans: D –Ideal conditions for tea plantation:
    · Moderate slope.
    · Thick soil cover with high organic content.
    · Well distributed rainfall throughout the year.
    · Mild winters.
  1. Ans: D –· It is a low pressure zone where trade winds converge.
    · It is also called the monsoon trough.
    · The South easterly winds of the southern hemisphere blow as south west monsoon in the northern hemisphere due to shifting of ITCZ.
  1. Option (c) is correct: The big splat’ theory describes the formation of the Moon.
    The Big Splat theory
    It is now generally believed that the formation of the moon, as a satellite of the earth, is an outcome of ‘giant impact’ or what is described as “the big splat”.
    A body of the size of one to three times that of mars collided into the earth sometime shortly after the earth was formed. It blasted a large part of the earth into space.
    This portion of blasted material then continued to orbit the earth and eventually formed into the present moon about 4.44 billion years ago.
  1.  Option (b) is incorrect: The Temperate Cyclones move from west to east and Tropical Cyclones, move from east to west.
    Cyclones
    Cyclones are large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
    Based on the geographical location, the Cyclones are of two types namely Tropical Cyclones and Temperate Cyclones (Extra Tropical Cyclones).

Tropical Cyclones
Tropical Cyclones are violent storms that originate over the seas in the Low Pressure belt of the tropical areas and move eastward over to the coastal areas.
They bring about large scale destruction caused by violent winds, very heavy rainfall and storm surges which make them as one of the most devastating natural calamities.
They are known as Cyclones in the Indian Ocean, Hurricanes in the Atlantic, Typhoons in the Western Pacific and South China Sea, and Willy-willies in the Western Australia.
They originate only over the seas because of the need of continuous moisture to energize the Cyclones regularly. This is why they dissipate once reaching the land.
They are violent because of the energy coming from the condensation process in cumulonimbus clouds surrounding the Cyclones.
They move from east to west because they are facilitated by the Trade wind. Temperate Cyclone
This system develops in the mid and high latitude (around 600 latitudes) along the polar front (boundary between the warm air and cold air).
As the polar front develops over entire polar frontal system, this cyclone affects a much larger area of around 2000 km. Also it develops over land and sea both as far as there is frontal system.
It moves from west to east due to the influence of Westerlies. 

Mechanism of the Temperate Cyclone
When the pressure drops along the front, the warm air moves northwards and the cold air move towards south setting in motion for anticlockwise cyclonic circulation. 

The warm air glides over the cold air and a sequence of clouds appear over the sky ahead of the warm front and cause precipitation.
The cold front approaches the warm air from behind and pushes the warm air up. As a result, cumulus clouds develop along the cold front.
The cold front moves faster than the warm front, ultimately overtaking the warm front. The warm air is completely lifted up and the front is occluded and the cyclone dissipates.

  1. Correct Option: (a)
    Statement 1 is incorrect: When the rivers originate from a hill and flow in all directions, the drainage pattern is known as ‘radial’.
    Important Drainage Patterns
    The drainage pattern resembling the branches of a tree is known as “dendritic” the examples of which are the rivers of northern plain.
    When the rivers originate from a hill and flow in all directions, the drainage pattern is known as ‘radial’. The rivers originating from the Amarkantak range present a good example of it.
    When the primary tributaries of rivers flow parallel to each other and secondary tributaries join them at right angles, the pattern is known as ‘trellis’.
    When the rivers discharge their waters from all directions in a lake or depression, the pattern is known as ‘centripetal’.
  1. Option (a) is correct:
    List I                         List II
    1. Insolation           C. The incoming solar radiation
    2. Albedo                D. The percentage of visible light reflected by an object
    3. Isotherm             B. The lines joining the places of equal temperature
    4. Annual range     A. The difference of temperature between the mean temperature of the warmest and            the coldest months
    Insolation The earth’s surface receives most of its energy in short wavelengths.
    The energy received by the earth is known as incoming solar radiation which in short is termed as insolation.
    Albedo  The percentage of visible light reflected by an object is called its albedo.
    Isotherm  The temperature distribution is generally shown on the map with the help of isotherms.
    The isotherms are lines joining places having an equal temperature.
    Annual range  It is the difference between the mean temperature of the warmest and the coldest months.
  2. Correct Option: (b)
    Pair 2 is incorrectly matched:  Dhauli Ganga and Vishnu Ganga: Joshimath
    Pair 4 is incorrectly matched: Alaknanda and Pindar: Karnaprayag
    The Ganga System
    The Ganga is the most important river of India both from the point of view of its basin and cultural significance. It rises in the Gangotri glacier near Gaumukh (3,900 m) in the Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand.
    Here, it is known as the Bhagirathi. It cuts through the Central and the Lesser Himalayas in narrow gorges. At Devprayag, the Bhagirathi meets the Alaknanda; hereafter, it is known as the Ganga.
    The Alaknanda has its source in the Satopanth glacier above Badrinath. The Alaknanda consists of the Dhauli and the Vishnu Ganga which meet at Joshimath or Vishnu Prayag.
    The other tributaries of Alaknanda such as the Pindar joins it at Karna Prayag while Mandakini or Kali Ganga meets it at Rudra Prayag. 

The Ganga enters the plains at Haridwar. From here, it flows first to the south, then to the south-east and east before splitting into two distributaries, namely the Bhagirathi and the Padma.

  1. Correct Option: (c)
    Pair 1 is incorrectly matched:
    The Continental shelf is occupied by relatively shallow seas and gulfs.
    Supplementary notes:
    Divisions of the Ocean Floors
    The ocean floors can be divided into four major divisions:
    The Continental Shelf
    The Continental Slope
    The Deep Sea Plain
    The Oceanic Deeps.
    Besides these divisions there are also major and minor relief features in the ocean floors like ridges, hills, seamounts, guyots, trenches, canyons, etc.
    Continental Shelf
    The continental shelf is the extended margin of each continent occupied by relatively shallow seas and gulfs.
    It is the shallowest part of the ocean showing an average gradient of 1° or even less. The shelf typically ends at a very steep slope, called the shelf break.
    The width of the continental shelves varies from one ocean to another. The average width of continental shelves is about 80 km.
    The shelves are almost absent or very narrow along some of the margins like the coasts of Chile, the west coast of Sumatra, etc.
    On the contrary, the Siberian shelf in the Arctic Ocean, the largest in the world, stretches to 1,500 km in width. The depth of the shelves also varies. It may be as shallow as 30 m in some areas while in some areas it is as deep as 600 m.
    The continental shelves are covered with variable thicknesses of sediments brought down by rivers, glaciers, wind, from the land and distributed by waves and currents. Massive sedimentary deposits received over a long time by the continental shelves become the source of fossil fuels.

Continental Slope
The continental slope connects the continental shelf and the ocean basins.  It begins where the bottom of the continental shelf sharply drops off into a steep slope. The gradient of the slope region varies between 2-5°. The depth of the slope region varies between 200 and 3,000 m.
The slope boundary indicates the end of the continents.
Canyons and trenches are observed in this region.

Deep-Sea Plain
Deep-sea plains are gently sloping areas of the ocean basins. These are the flattest and smoothest regions of the world.
The depths vary between 3,000 and 6,000m. These plains are covered with fine-grained sediments like clay and silt.

Oceanic Deeps or Trenches
These areas are the deepest parts of the oceans. The trenches are relatively steepsided, narrow basins. They are some 3-5 km deeper than the surrounding ocean floor.
They occur at the bases of continental slopes and along island arcs and are associated with active volcanoes and strong earthquakes. That is why they are very significant in the study of plate movements.
As many as 57 deeps have been explored so far; of which 32 are in the Pacific Ocean; 19 in the Atlantic Ocean and 6 in the Indian Ocean.

  1.  Option (c) is correct: Laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and high rainfall.
    Laterite Soil
    Laterite has been derived from the= Latin word ‘Later’ which means brick. The laterite soils develop in areas with high temperatures and high rainfall.
    These are the result of intense leaching due to tropical rain.
    With rain, lime and silica are leached away, and soils rich in iron oxide and aluminum compounds are left behind. Humus content of the soil is removed fast by bacteria that thrive well in high temperatures. These
    soils are poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate, and calcium, while iron oxide and potash are in excess.
    Hence, laterites are not suitable for cultivation; however, the application of manures and fertilizers are required for making the soil fertile for cultivation.
    Red laterite soils in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala are more suitable for tree crops like cashew nuts.
    Laterite soils are widely cut as bricks for use in house construction. These soils have mainly developed in the higher areas of the peninsular plateau. The laterite soils are commonly found in Karnataka, Kerala,
    Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly areas of Odisha and Assam.
  1.  Option (a) is correct:
    Rivers Origin
    A. Jhelum       4. Verinag Spring
    B. Ravi            3. West of Rohtang Pass(Kullu hills)
    C. Indus          2. Bokhar Chu Glacier
    D. Sutlej         1. Rakshas Lake
    Supplementary notes:
    Origin of Indus River System
    The Indus also is known as the Sindhu, is the westernmost of the Himalayan rivers in India. It originates from a glacier near Bokhar Chu (31°15’ N latitude and 81°40’ E longitude) in the Tibetan region at an altitude of 4,164 m in the Kailash Mountain range.
    The Jhelum, an important tributary of the Indus, rises from a spring at Verinag situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal in the south-eastern part of the valley of Kashmir.
    It flows through Srinagar and the Wular lake before entering Pakistan through a deep narrow gorge. It joins the Chenab near Jhang in Pakistan.
    The Ravi is another important tributary of the Indus. It rises Bara Banghal of Himachal Pradesh and flows through the Chamba valley of the state. Before entering Pakistan and joining the Chenab near Sarai Sidhu, it drains the area lying between the southeastern part of the Pir Panjal and the Dhauladhar ranges.
    The Satluj originates in the ‘Raksas tal’ near Mansarovar at an altitude of 4,555 m in Tibet where it is known as Langchen Khambab. It flows almost parallel to the Indus for about 400 km before entering India and comes out of a gorge at Rupar. It passes through the Shipki La on the Himalayan ranges and enters the Punjab plains.
  1.  Option (a) is correct: The region in this quotation is Western Ghats.
    Supplementary notes:
    The Deccan Plateau
    This is bordered by the Western Ghats in the west, the Eastern Ghats in the east and the Satpura, the Maikal range and Mahadeo hills in the north.
    The Western Ghats are locally known by different names.
    The Western Ghats are locally known by different names such as Sahyadri in Maharashtra, Nilgiri hills in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and Anaimalai hills and Cardamom hills in Kerala.
  1. Correct Option: (a). 

Prime Minister has asked tourists to visit the tulip garden, located at the foothills of the Zabarwan range in Jammu and Kashmir.

Zabarwan Mountains

  • The Zabarwan Range is a short sub-mountain range between Pir Panjal and the Great Himalayan Range in the central part of the Kashmir Valley.
  • Specifically, the range is known to be what overlooks the Dal Lake and holds the Mughal gardens of Srinagar.
  • The Shankaracharya Temple is built on the edge of the central part of the Zabarwan Range.
  • The highest peak of this range is Mahadev Peak at 13,013 feet (3,966 m), which forms the distant background of the eastern mountain wall.
  • On the northern slopes of the central part of the range, there are three Mughal gardens built by Emperor Shah Jahan.
  • These include Chashma Shahi, Nishat Bagh and Shalimar Garden alongside the Pari Mahal (the fairy palace).
  • The Dachigam National Park is the main feature of the range which holds the last viable population of Kashmir stag (Hangul) and the largest population of black bear in Asia.
  1. Correct Option: (b)

Russian scientists launched one of the world’s biggest underwater neutrino telescopes called the Baikal-GVD (Gigaton Volume Detector) in the waters of Lake Baikail.
Lake Baikal is the world’s deepest lake situated in Siberia.

Lake Baikal
• Lake Baikal is a rift lake located in southern Siberia, Russia.
• It is the largest freshwater lake by volume in the world, containing 22 to 23% of the world’s
fresh surface water.
• It is the seventh-largest lake in the world by surface area.
• Maximum depth: 1,642 m (5,387 ft)
• It is the world’s oldest (25–30 million years) and deepest lake.
• It has a long, crescent shape.
• The UNESCO declared Lake Baikal a World Heritage Site in 1996.

  1. Correct Option: (c)
    Whitsun Reef, also known as Whitson Reef, Whitsum Reef, and Julian Felipe Reef
    • It is a reef at the northeast extreme limit of the Union Banks in the Spratly Islands of the West Philippine Sea.
    • It is the largest reef of the Union Banks.
  1. Correct Option: (b)

Kelp forests are under water areas with a high density of kelp, which covers a large part of the world’s coastlines.
• They are recognized as one of the most productive and dynamic ecosystems on Earth.
• Smaller areas of anchored kelp are called kelp beds.
• Kelp forests occur worldwide throughout temperate and polar coastal oceans.
• Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.

  1. Correct Option: (c)

More than a third of the two countries’ border is disputed, with the area surrounding the Vorukh, where recent conflict erupted. 

It is a regular flashpoint over territorial claims and access to water.

Vorukh is a jamoat (administrative division) in northern Tajikistan.

It is an enclave surrounded by Kyrgyzstan that forms part of the city of Isfara in Sughd Region.

The location of the border of the enclave is disputed by the Tajik and Kyrgyz governments.

  1. Correct Option: (d)

It is an intergovernmental organisation that was formed in 1975.

The bloc meets annually to discuss issues of common interest like global economic governance, international security and energy policy.

The G7 countries are the UK, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the US.

All the G7 countries and India are a part of G20 

The G7 does not have a formal constitution or a fixed headquarters. The decisions taken by leaders during annual summits are non-binding.

  1. Correct Option: (a)

The Union Cabinet gave its approval to the transfer of land of Indo-Tibetan Border Police, ITBP to Government of Uttarakhand for development of Aerial Passenger Ropeway System between Dehradun and Mussoorie.
• The proposed Ropeway is a mono-cable ropeway of 5.5 Km length between Purkul Gaon, Dehradun and Library, Mussoorie being constructed at an estimated cost of Rs 285 crore.
• It will have a carrying capacity of 1,000 persons per hour per direction.
• This will considerably reduce the traffic flow on the road route from Dehradun to Mussoorie.
• This will region to the east of Lake Baikal is referred to as Transbaikalia or as the Trans baikal.
• The loosely defined region around the lake itself is sometimes known as Baikalia.
• 

generate direct employment of 350 and indirect employment of more than 1,500 people.
• It will also be a huge attraction for tourists which in turn will provide a boost to the tourism industry

  1. Correct Option: (a)

Lithuania is a country in northeastern Europe. Known as the Republic of Lithuania, this country is part of the Baltic Region. Rightfully so, Lithuania is positioned along the coast of the Baltic Sea. The country is surrounded by four other European countries as well. In the north and northeast, Lithuania shares borders with Latvia. To the south and southeast of Lithuania lies Belarus. Poland is both south and southwest of Lithuania. Russia is to the west of Lithuania and shares a border with about half of the western region of Lithuania, with the remaining mileage lining the coast of the Baltic Sea

  1. Correct Option: (a)

The Nag River Pollution Abatement Project has been approved at a cost of Rs. 2,117.54 crores under the National River Conservation Plan.

The Nag River is a river flowing through Nagpur, Maharashtra. The city derives its name from the Nag river. Forming a part of the Kanhan-Pench river system, the Nag River originates in Lava hills near wadi.

  1. Correct Option: (d)

Indian Prime Minister inaugurated ‘Maitri Setu’ between India and Bangladesh.
● Constructed by: National Highways and Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd
● The bridge ‘Maitri Setu’ has been built over Feni river.
● The river flows between Tripura and Bangladesh.
● The bridge joins Sabroom (in Tripura) with Ramgarh (in Bangladesh).
● With this bridge, Tripura is set to become the ‘Gateway of North East’ with access to Chittagong Port of Bangladesh, which is 80 km from Sabroom.

  1. Correct Option: (d)

The Heart of Asia – Istanbul Process (HoA-IP) is an initiative of Afghanistan and Turkey, which was officially launched at a conference hosted by Turkey in Istanbul in 2011.
∙ Since then, Afghanistan supported by 14 Participating Countries of the Heart of Asia Region, 16
Supporting Countries beyond the region and 12 Regional and International Organizations are leading and coordinating this Process.
∙ It is a platform for promoting regional security, economic and political cooperation centred on Afghanistan through dialogue and a set of Confidence Building Measures (CBMs).
∙ De facto Secretariat: The Directorate-General for Regional Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan
∙ The geographical area covering the 15 Participating Countries of the HoA-IP is defined as the Heart of Asia Region.
∙ It is one of the biggest regions in the world with a collective geographical area covering around 27% of the land area of the Earth.

  1. Correct Option: (d)

Africa is the second largest continent, after Asia. The climate of Africa ranges from tropical to subarctic on the mountain ranges and its highest peaks. Its northern half is primarily desert, or arid, while its central and southern areas contain both savanna plains and dense jungle (rainforest) regions.

  1. Correct Option: (c)

The Danish government approved a plan to build an artificial island in the North Sea as part of its effort to switch to green energy.

  1. Correct Option: (a) Statement 2 is incorrect: The lakes and the playas have brackish water which is the main source of obtaining salt.
    The Indian Desert
    To the northwest of the Aravali hills lies the Great Indian desert.
    It is a land of undulating topography dotted with longitudinal dunes and barchans.
    This region receives low rainfall below 150 mm per year; hence, it has an arid climate with low vegetation cover.
    It is because of these characteristic features that this is also known as Marusthali.  Underlying rock structure of the desert is an extension of the Peninsular plateau, yet,
    Due  to extremely arid conditions, its surface features have been carved by physical weathering and wind actions.
    Some of the well pronounced desert lands feature present here are mushroom rocks, shifting dunes and oasis (mostly in its southern part).
    The lakes and the playas have brackish water which is the main source of obtaining salt.
  2. Correct Option: (d)
  3. Correct Option: (a) One major factor affecting the distribution of the temperature of Earth is the distribution of Land and Oceans Since there is more land in Northern Hemisphere and more water in the Southern hemisphere and there is a big difference between the specific heat of land and water; the loss of heat from the continents is bigger than the oceans.​Hence statement 1 is correct.

 The continents get heated faster and get cooled faster in comparison to the Oceans. This is the reason that the temperatures of the Oceans are moderate while that of continents is extreme.

The moderating effect on the temperature of the land due to the proximity of the seas is called Maritime influence. The increasing effect on the temperature of the land at the interior of the continents is high).   But the interiors in Central Asia, receive very poor rainfall due to distance from the sea.  Hence continents is called Continental Influence.

In the above question, statement 2 is framed as a wrong statement.  Variation in altitude between continents and oceans is not a valid explanation for a given question.   Statement 4 claims that Heavy rains in the interior as compared to coasts (are responsible for why an annual range of temperature in the interior of the statement 4 is incorrect.

   Annual precipitation is usually low in the interior areas as well as the presence of weak winds in the interior. Hence statement 3 is not correct.

  1. Correct Option: (d)
  1. The Correct Answer is Option 1 i.e Kodaikanal (Tamil Nadu).
  • Kodaikanal (Tamil Nadu):  it is a manmade/artificial lake located in the Kodaikanal city in Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu.
    • Kodaikanal Lake was created in the year 1863 by Sir Vere Henry Levinge, the former Collector of Madurai.
  • Kolleru (Andhra Pradesh): It is the largest natural freshwater lake in India and located between Krishna and Godavari Deltas.
  • Nainital (Uttarakhand): It is a natural fresh water lake and is of tectonic origin, located amidst the Nainital city of Uttarakhand.
  • Renuka (Himachal Pradesh): It is the largest natural lake in Himachal Pradesh, this lake is named after the goddess Renuka.
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