History test answers

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  1. Correct Answer: C

Young India was launched by Mahatma Gandhi. The other two were of Annie Besant.

  1. Correct Answer: C

In March 1919, the government passed the Rowlatt Act even though every single Indian member of the Central Legislative Council opposed it. This Act authorised the Government to imprison any person without trial and conviction in a court of law. The Act would thus also enable the government to suspend the right of Habeas corpus which had been the foundation of civil liberties in Britain.

  1. Correct Answer: C

Indian Muslims were critical of the treatment meeted out to Turkey (Ottoman Empire) under Treaty of Sevres. Khilafat movement was launched to influence British in its treatment of the Ottoman Empire post World War 1.

  1. Correct Answer: D

During the national movement, the government enforced several restrictions to curb the freedom of press.
However the nationalist press used several means to circumvent the government’s restrictions. 

  • Since section 124A excluded writings of persons whose loyalty to the government was undoubted, nationalists invariably prefaced their vitriolic writing with effusive sentiments of loyalty to the government and to the Queen. 
  • They would cite from London based socialists and Irish newspapers knowing well that the government could not discriminate by just taking action against them while leaving the offending Britishers untouched.
  • Often the radical expose would take the form of advice and warning to the government as if from a well wisher, as if the writer’s main purpose was to save the authorities from its own follies. B.G. Tilak and Motilal Ghosh were experts at this form of writing.
  1. Correct Answer: B
  • The session was presided over by Ambika Charan Majumdar.
  • The extremists including were welcomed back into the Congress by the Moderate president, Ambika Charan Mazumdar at this session.
  • The Lucknow Congress was significant also for the famous Congress League Pact, popularly known as the Lucknow Pact. Both Tilak and Annie Besant had played a leading role in bringing about this agreement between the Congress and the League, much against the wishes of many important leaders, including Madan Mohan Malaviya. The pact accepted the principle of separate electorates for the Muslims.
  1. Correct Answer: C

What angered Indians the most was the exclusion of Indians from the Simon Commission and the basic notion behind this exclusion that foreigners would discuss and decide upon India’s fitness for self-government. 

The demand of “Poorn Swaraj” was made in Lahore Session of Congress. This session was held in 1929 and Simon Commission was appointed in 1927. Rowlatt act was in 1919.

  1. Correct Answer: A

A major aspect of nationalist strategy was the long-drawn out character of the hegemonic struggle. Under this strategy, which may be described as Struggle-Truce-Struggle or S-T-S’, a phase of vigorous extralegal mass movement and open confrontation with colonial authority was followed by a phase during which direct confrontation was withdrawn, and political concessions, if any, wrested from the colonial regime were worked and shown to be inadequate. During this latter, more ‘passive’, phase, intense political and ideological work was carried on among the masses within the existing legal and constitutional framework, and forces were gathered for another mass movement at a higher level. The culmination of this strategy of S-T-S’ came with a call for ‘Quit India’ and the achievement of independence.

  1. Correct Answer: D
  • Spread of modern western education and thoughts during 19th century imbibed a modern, rational, secular, democratic and nationalist political outlook, which played a key role in growing nationalism.
  • The chief instrument through which the nationalist-minded Indians spread the message of patriotism and modern economic, social and political ideas, and created an all-India consciousness was the Press. Large numbers of nationalist newspapers made their appearance during the second half of the 19th century.
  • Further railway and other communication system also played a critical role in spread of Nationalism in India.
  1. Correct Answer: D
  • The Indian National Congress Benares session was presided over by G.K. Gokhale.
  • The goal of the Indian National Congress as ‘self government or Swaraj like that of the United Kingdom or the Colonies’ was declared at the 1906 session at Calcutta presided over Dadabhai Naroji.
  • The Indian National Congress took up the Swadeshi call and the Banaras Session, 1905, presided over by G.K. Gokhale, supported the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement for Bengal. The militant nationalists led by Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lajpat Rai and Aurobindo Ghosh were, however, in favour of extending the movement to the rest of India and carrying it beyond the programme of just Swadeshi and boycott to a full fledged political mass struggle. The aim was now Swaraj and the abrogation of partition had become the ‘pettiest and narrowest of all political objects’. The moderates, by and large, were not as yet willing to go that far.
  1. Correct Answer: A

Nehru Report was prepared as an alternative to Simon Commission. It was finalised in August 1928. Civil
Disobedience Movement started on 12 March 1930 with Dandi march. Communal award was announced
in 1932.

  1. Correct Answer: C
  • One of the biggest reasons behind success of CDM was use of traditional means by nationalist leaders to
    connect masses.
  • In Prabhatpheris, bands of men, women and children went around at dawn singing nationalist songs,
    became the rule in villages and towns. 
  • Patrikas, or illegal news-sheets, sometimes written by hand and sometimes cyclostyled, were part of the strategy to defy the hated Press Act, and they flooded the country.
  • Magic lanterns were used to take the nationalist message to the villages. Public meeting also helped in to connect to the masses.
  • Tying Rakhi was a means of cementing ties during partition of Bengal and part of swadeshi movement. 
  1. Correct Answer: D

Dharasana Satyagraha was a protest against the British salt tax in colonial India in May, 1930.

Sarojini Naidu, Imam Saheb, Gandhiji’s comrade of the South African struggle, and Gandhiji’s son Manilaal participated in Dharasana salt Satyagraha.

It was launched during civil disobedience movement .

  1. Correct Answer: C

C. Rajagopalachari, led a salt march in Tamilnadu from Trichinopoly to Vedaranniyam on the Tanjore coast.

K. Kelappan, the hero of the Vaikom Satyagraha, walked from Calicut to Payannur to break the salt law in Malabar, modern day Kerala.

Frontier Gandhi was active in North West frontier and not in Lahore. Khan Abdul Gaafar Khan lead a band of non-violent revolutionaries, the Khudai Khidmatgars, popularly known as the Red Shirts that played an extremely active role in the Civil Disobedience Movement in Peshawar area.

  1. Correct Answer: C
  • Between 1907 and 1908, nine major leaders in Bengal including Ashwini Kumar Dutt and Krishna Kumar Mitra were deported. Tilak was given a sentence of six years imprisonment; Ajit Singh and Lajpat Rai of Punjab were deported and Chidambaram Pillai and Harisarvottam Rao from Madras and Andhra were arrested.
  • The internal squabbles, and especially, the split, in 1907 in the Congress, the apex all-India organization, weakened the movement.
  • The government, seeing the revolutionary potential of the movement, came down with a heavy hand. Repression took the form of controls and bans on public meetings, processions and the press. Student participants were expelled from Government schools and colleges, debarred from Government service, fined and at times beaten up by the police.
  • Annulment of Partition of Bengal was done in 1911 in Delhi Durbar after waning away of swadeshi movement.
  1. Correct Answer: A
  • The nationalist agitation forced the Government to make some changes in legislative functioning by the Indian Councils Act of 1892. The number of additional members of the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Councils was increased from the previous six to ten to ten to sixteen. A few of these member could be elected indirectly through municipal committees, district boards, etc., but the official majority remained.
  • The members were given the right to discuss the annual budget but they could neither vote on it nor move a motion to amend it. They could also ask questions but were not allowed to put supplementary questions or to discuss the answers.
  1. Correct Answer: B

The British Government summoned in London in 1930 the first Round Table Conference of Indian leaders and spokesmen of the British Government to discuss the Simon Commission Report. Communal Award was provided after the failure of 3 Round Table Conferences. It might have appeased Muslim League but it was not the stated objective of Round Table Conferences.

  1. Correct Answer: B

The Lahore session of Congress in 1930 passed a resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj as its objective.

Congress also announced the launching of Civil Disobedience at the Lahore session.

In Lahore Session, 26 January 1930 was fixed as the first Independence Day not Republic Day.

  1. Correct Answer: B

Just when the nationalists were expecting post-War constitutional concessions, the Government came out with the repressive Rowlatt Act which the nationalists took as an insult. Gandhi called for a nationwide protest in February 1919. But soon, having seen the constitutional protest fail, Gandhi organised a Satyagraha Sabha to lauch a satyagraha.

  1. Correct Answer: B

Gandhi ji was not opposed to modern large scale industry so long as it augmented, and lightened the burden of human labour and not displaces it. He also wanted large scale industry to be owned and controlled by the state and not by private capitalists.

British economists and administrators echoed for investment of British capital as major instrument for development of India. Indian nationalists including Dadabhai Naoroji, Tilak, Gandhi and Nehru completely rejected the proposal. As per them, Foreign capital underdeveloped the nation than to develop it. It suppressed indigenous capital and made growth difficult. Also, it was politically harmful as it had its impact over the administration.

  1. Correct Answer: A

Lokamanya Tilak took the Swadeshi movement to different parts of India, especially Poona and Bombay; Syed Haidar Raza led the movement in Delhi; Rawalpindi, Kangra, Jammu, Multan and Haridwar witnessed active participation in the Swadeshi Movement; Ajit Singh and Lala Lajpat Rai spread the Swadeshi message in Punjab and other parts of northern India. Chidambaram Pillai took the movement to the Madras presidency

  1. Correct Answer: B
  1. Correct Answer: B

It is the joint exercise by the Special Forces of India and the United States. It’s 11th edition (2021) was recently conducted at Special Forces Training School located at BaklohHimachal Pradesh.

Aim: To share the best practices and experiences in areas such as joint mission planning and operational tactics as also to improve interoperability between the Special Forces of both nations.

Special Forces are the units of a country’s armed forces that undertake covert, counterterrorist, and other specialized operations.

  1. Correct Answer: C

The National Statistical Office operating under Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) recently released the annually published Women and Men in India report. The report consolidates the crucial socio-economic indicators that portray gender situation in the country. According to the report:

  • Sex ratio has increased from 933 in 2001 to 943 in 2011.
  • Delhi recorded the highest increase in sex ratio followed by Chandigarh, Arunachal Pradesh.
  • On the other hand, Daman and Diu had the highest decline in sex ratio.
  • The Gender gap in literacy rates was the highest in Rajasthan, Bihar, UP.
  1. Correct Answer: B

Helium is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas, the first in the noble gas group in the periodic table. Its boiling point is the lowest among all the elements. Hence, statement 1 is correct.

India’s Rajmahal volcanic basin in Jharkhand is the storehouse of helium trapped for billions of years, since the very birth of Earth from the Sun. hence, statement 2 is correct.

The USA became the most important exporter of helium across the world after the discovery of helium in large quantities under the American Great Plains. It was soon realized that the USA was also the biggest storehouse of helium. Qatar is a possible exporter but acute political and diplomatic wrangles have made Qatar unreliable. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.

  1. Correct Answer: B

Recently, the World Bank has published the World Development Report 2021: Data for Better Lives. It provides a blueprint on how to harness the power of data for development, to ensure no one is left behind.

  1. Correct Answer: C
  • NASA and ISRO are collaborating on developing an SUV-sized satellite called NISAR, which will detect movements of the planet’s surface as small as 0.4 inches over areas about half the size of a tennis court. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.
  • The name ‘NISAR’ is short for NASA-ISRO-SAR.
  • SAR here refers to the Synthetic Aperture Radar that NASA will use to measure changes in the surface of the Earth. It refers to a technique for producing high-resolution images. Because of the precision, the radar can penetrate clouds and darkness, which means that it can collect data day and night in any weather.
  • The satellite will be launched in 2022 from the Satish Dhawan Space Center in Sriharikota (Andhra Pradesh) into a near-polar orbit. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.
  • In this mission, NASA will provide one of the radars for the satellite, a high-rate communication subsystem for science data, GPS receivers and a payload data subsystem.
  • NISAR will be equipped with the largest reflector antenna ever launched by NASA.
  • ISRO will provide the spacecraft bus, the second type of radar (called the S-band radar), the launch vehicle and associated launch services. Hence, statement 3 is correct.
  1. Correct Answer: B

India has fallen 28 places in the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Gender Gap Report 2021. It was first published in 2006 by the WEF. It benchmarks 156 countries on their progress towards gender parity in four dimensions:

  1. Economic Participation and Opportunity, 
  2. Educational Attainment, 
  3. Health and Survival, and 
  4. Political Empowerment

Over the Index, the highest possible score is 1 (equality) and the lowest possible score is 0 (inequality). India is now one of the worst performers in South Asia, it is now ranked 140 among 156 countries. Hence, statement 2 is not correct.

India has declined on the political empowerment index as well by 13.5 percentage points, and a decline in the number of women ministers, from 23.1% in 2019 to 9.1% in 2021. Hence, statement 3 is correct. However, it has still performed relatively well compared to other countries, ranking at 51 in women’s participation in politics.

  1. Correct Answer: C

Exercise La Perouse 2021 is a multilateral maritime exercise led by the French Navy. It is named after 18th century French Naval Explorer.

  • Aim: It includes surface warfare, anti-air warfare and air defence exercises, weapon firing exercises, cross deck flying operations and seamanship evolutions such as replenishment at sea.
  • Participants: French Navy, Indian Navy, Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Japan Maritime Self Defence Force (JMSDF), and the United States Navy (USN) are the participating in the exercise.
  • Location: The exercise is being conducted in the Eastern Indian Ocean Region.
  • Significance: Indian Navy is participating in the exercise for the first time. The participation will showcase high levels of synergy, coordination and interoperability between the friendly navies. The Indian Navy Ships INS Satpura and INS Kiltan along with P8I Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft are participating in Exercise La Pérouse 2021. 
  1. Correct Answer: B
  1. Correct Answer: D

Recently, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has issued an operating licence for the Arab world’s first commercial nuclear power plant.

  • Barakah was built by a consortium led by the Korea Electric Power Corporation at a cost of some $24.4 billions.
  • It is located in Abu Dhabi on a sparsely populated strip of desert on the Persian Gulf coast.
  • Barakah will have 4 APR-1400 reactors (one operating, three mostly completed) with a total capacity of 5,600 megawatts. UAE will be able to meet its 25% of electricity needs from nuclear power.
  1. Correct Answer: A

The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a statutory and institutionalized framework under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, for maintaining price stability, while keeping in mind the objective of growth. The MPC determines the policy interest rate (repo rate) required to achieve the inflation target (4% +/- 2). It is the Central Government of India that determines the Inflation Target. 

  1. Correct Answer: C

When an individual gets infected by a respiratory virus like SARS-CoV-2, the virus particles bind to the various types of viral receptor. Thus, Recovered patients can sometimes continue to carry low levels of virus within their system for up to three months. 

These levels are no longer enough to make the person sick or transmit the disease to others, but it can get detected in diagnostic tests. The disease developed from such persistent virus is what is called Persistent Viral Shedding.

  1. Correct Answer: B

As it was applicable only to the Indian languages newspapers, showing British intent and its discrimination towards vernacular press.

The act provided for confiscation of the printing press, paper and other materials of a newspaper if the government believed that it was publishing seditious materials and had flouted an official warning.

  1. Correct Answer: D

All the 3 pairs are correctly matched. 

  • In Bengal and Bihar, anti-chowkidara campaign was launched during civil disobedience movement.
  • Defiance of forest laws assumed a mass character in Maharashtra, Karnataka and the Central Provinces, especially in areas with large tribal populations who had been the most seriously affected by the colonial Government’s restrictions on the use of the forest.
  • No revenue no tax campaign was the feature of UP. The no-revenue part was a call to the zamindars to refuse to pay revenue to the Government; the no rent was a call to the tenants not to pay rent to the zamindars.
  1. Correct Answer: B
  • Moderates lacked faith in the common people, did not work among them and consequently failed to acquire any roots among them. The Extremists had made a sharp and effective critique of the moderates. They believed in the capacity of masses and tried to mobilise the masses. It was the revolutionary nationalists who believed in the individual heroic actions.
  • Extremists had rightly emphasized the role of the masses and the need to go beyond propaganda and agitation. They had advocated persistent opposition to the Government and put forward a militant programme of passive resistance and boycott of foreign cloth, foreigners’ courts, education and so on.
  • They had demanded self-sacrifice from the youth. They had talked and written about direct action.
  1. Correct Answer: D
  • All the given pairs are correctly matched. Pherozeshah Mehta, K. T. Telang and Badruddin Tyabji formed Bombay Presidency Association in 1885.
  • The Poona Sarvajanik sabha was organised by Justice Ranade and others in 1870.
  • The Madras Maha Jansabha was formed by Viraraghavachari, Subramaniya Iyer, Ananda Charlu and others in 1884.
  1. Correct Answer: B
  • Gandhiji returned to India in January 1915. He decided not to take any position on any political matter for at least one year. However he had no such opinion that it was too early to demand for swaraj.
  • He was convinced about the limitations of moderate politics and was not in favour of Home Rule agitation which was becoming popular at that time.
  • He thought that it was not the best time to agitate for Home Rule when Britain was in the middle of a war. He was convinced that the only technique capable of meeting the nationalist aims was a non-violent satyagraha.
  1. Correct Answer: B

Inspite of the movement having its genesis in anti partition protest in Bengal, the boycott movement spread to many parts of India.

As question of spreading the movement on pan India level and question of passive resistance divided INC which led to split in 1907.

The social base of the national movements now extended to include a certain zamindari section, the lower middle class in the cities and small towns and school and college students on a massive scale. Women came out of their homes for the first time and joined processions and picketing.

Lord Curzon was viceroy when partition of Bengal was announced.

  1. Correct Answer: D

Being fully and consciously secular, he understood, more clearly than many of his contemporaries, the danger that communalism posed to the nation and the national movement. He often told his audience that communalism was as big an enemy as colonialism. In April 1928, at the conference of youth where Naujawan Bharat Sabha was reorganized, Bhagat Singh and his comrades openly opposed the suggestion that youth belonging to religious communal organizations should be permitted to become members of the Sabha. Religion was one’s private concern and communalism was an enemy to be fought, argued Bhagat Singh.

Bhagat Singh revered Lajpat Rai as a leader. But he would not spare even Lajpat Rai, when, during the last years of his life, Lajpat Rai turned to communal politics. He then launched a political-ideological campaign against him. Because Lajpat Rai was a respected leader, he would not publicly use harsh words of criticism against him.

Bhagat Singh helped establish the Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926 (becoming its founding Secretary), as the open wing of the revolutionaries. The Sabha was to carry out open political work among the youth, peasants and workers. It was to open branches in the villages. Under its auspices, Bhagat Singh used to deliver political lectures with the help of magic lantern slides. Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev also organized the Lahore Students Union for open, legal work among the students.

  1. Correct Answer: A

In 1904, V. D. Sarvarkar organized Abhinav Bharat as a secret society of revolutionaries.

  1. Correct Answer: A

This reform increased the number of elected members in both Imperial Legislative Council and the provincial councils. But most of the elected members were elected indirectly.

Morley Minto Reform introduced separate electorate for the Muslim not for the Sikhs and Christians.

  1. Correct Answer: C

Quit India Movement was started in Aug 1942 after the breakdown of negotiations between Cripps Mission (March 1942) and the Congress. Cabinet Mission – 1946, Wavell Plan – 1945 and Simon Commission – 1928.

  1. Correct Answer: D

The impact of the Left on the national movement was reflected in the resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy passed by the Karachi session of the Congress in 1931, the resolutions on economic policy passed at the Faizpur session in 1936, the Election Manifesto of the Congress in 1936, the setting up of a National Planning Committee in 1938, and the increasing shift of Gandhiji towards radical positions on economic and class issues.

  1. Correct Answer: D
  • The activities during the Quit India movement included that of organizing the disruption of communications by blowing up bridges, cutting telegraph and telephone wires and derailing trains. 
  • There were also a few attacks on government and police officials and police informers.
  • For dissemination of news they came up with underground Radio. Congress radio operated from different locations in Bombay. Ram Manohar Lohia, regularly broadcasted on his radio.
  • Parallel governments were propped up in various locations – Ballia under Chittu Pande, in Tamluk , in satara etc. They mostly helped in releasing arrested local leaders, set up arbitration courts, conducted Gandhian marriages etc.
  1. Correct Answer: D

Non-cooperation programme was first launched by the Khilafat committee and later supported by Congress at its special session in Calcutta. It professed a boycott of legislative councils, schools, colleges, law courts, official titles, hounours and foreign cloth, till the Punjab and Khilafat wrongs were undone and till Swaraj was attained.

  1. Correct Answer: C
  • The British policy of consciously attempting to use communalism to turn the Muslims against the Swadeshi Movement was to a large extent responsible for this. This was the period when the All India Muslim League was set up with the active guidance and support of the Government. More specifically, in Bengal, people like Nawab Salimullah of Dacca were propped up as centres of opposition to the Swadeshi Movement. Mullahs and maulvis were pressed into service and, unsurprisingly, at the height of the Swadeshi Movement communal riots broke out in Bengal.
  • The use of traditional popular customs, festivals and institutions for mobilizing the masses-a technique used widely to generate mass movements, especially in the initial stages-was misinterpreted and distorted by communalists backed by the state.
  • British never assured any land reforms and infact Muslim league which supported the partition was predominantly led by rich zamindars and rulers which were against any sort of reform in land ownership.
  1. Correct Answer: D
  • Chittagong Raid was organised in Bengal by Surya Sen in 1930.
  • Ram Prasad bismil was involved in and tried under Kakori robbery.
  • Both Meerut and Kanpur Conspiracy case were tried against communists. S.A. Dange being a communist leader, was tried in Meerut case. M.N Roy was also a communist leader. He was tried in Kanpur Conspiracy.
  1. Correct Answer: C

Frightened by the spread of socialist and communist ideas and influence and believing that the crucial role in this respect was being played by British and other foreign agitators sent to India by the Communist International, the Government proposed to acquire the power to deport ‘undesirable’ and ‘subversive’ foreigners by introducing Public Safety Bill, 1928. 

  1. Correct Answer: D
  • Agitations against the entry of the Indians were launched by native American labourers and these were supported by politicians looking for the popular vote. White labour force and unions resented the competition they offered.
  • The Secretary of State for India urged for restrictions on immigration. For one, he believed that the terms of close familiarity of Indians with Whites which would inevitably take place in America was not good for British prestige; it was by prestige alone that India was held and not by force.
  • He was further worried that the immigrants would get contaminated by socialist ideas, and that the racial discrimination to which they were bound to be subjected would become the source of nationalist agitation in India.’ The combined pressure resulted in an effective restriction on Indian immigration into Canada in 1908.
  1. Correct Answer: A
  • As an answer to the challenge of the Simon Commission, Indian political leaders organized several all-India conferences to settle communal issues and draw up an agreed constitution for India. A large number of Muslim communal leaders met at Delhi in December 1927 and evolved four basic demands known as the Delhi Proposals.
  • Delhi proposal had 4 demands
  1. Sindh to be made a separate electorate,
  2. NWFP should be treated constitutionally on the same footing as other provinces.
  3. Muslims should be having 33.3 % reservation in the central legislature.
  4. Proportional representation in Punjab and Bengal.
  • Nehru accepted the first two demands of Delhi Proposals related to Sindh and NWFP. However it did not accept the other two demands.
  1. Correct Answer: A
  1. Correct Answer: D
  1. Correct Answer: B
  1. Correct Answer: D
  1. Correct Answer: A 

The 1901 Calcutta Session was the first time Mahatma Gandhi appeared on the Congress platform. Then a lawyer based in South Africa, Gandhi ji urged the Congress to support the struggle against racial discrimination and exploitation in the country. It was presided by Dinshaw Eduljee Wacha.

  1. Correct Answer: A

The Government conceded the right to make salt for personal consumption, not commercial sale.

The Congress suspended the Civil Disobedience Movement and agreed to take part in the 2nd round table conference. The third round table conference was held much later during the 2nd phase of Civil disobedience movement. Hence statement 3 is incorrect.

  1. Correct Answer: B

The Swarajists like C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru wanted to end the boycott to legislative councils and to use them as platforms for nationalist movement after the suspension of the Non Cooperation movement. Whereas the No Changers like Sardar Vallabhai Patel, Dr. Ansari and others opposed Council entry as they felt it would lead to neglect of Constructive work among the masses.

  1. Correct Answer: D

By 1942 Japan had occupied Rangoon. Britain now desperately wanted India’s cooperation in the war efforts and hence in Mar 1942, a mission headed by Sir Stafford Cripps was sent to India.

Statements A, B and C are incorrect. No committee was formed for the stated purposes.

  1. Correct Answer: B
  • The Montagu-Chelmsford reforms introduced Dyarchy at the provincial level, with reserved and transferred subject. The reserved subjects like finance and law and order remained under the control of Governor, administered through bureaucracy. The transferred subjects were brought under the control of ministers responsible to the legislatures.
  • It introduced bicameral legislature at the centre i.e. two houses of legislature. Lower house was the legislative assembly and the upper house was the council of state. 
  • At the central level, the legislature had no control over Governor General and his executive council.
  1. Correct Answer: C
  • A.O. Hume was a retired civil servant and a man of high ideals so that his presence in INC would have helped in escaping any kind of hostility at such an early stage. They assumed that the rulers would be less suspicious and less likely to attack a potentially subversive organization if its chief organizer was a retired British civil servant.
  • There were very few people that time who were familiar with western political and liberal ideologies and the tradition of open opposition to the rulers was not yet firmly entrenched.
  1. Correct Answer: D
  • Vinayak Damodar Savarkar organized Abhinav Bharat in 1906.
  • Sandhya and Yugantar in Bengal and Kal in Maharashtra were the prominent newspapers which advocated revolutionary terrorism during early 20th century.
  • The revolutionary organisation Anushilan Samiti was active in Bengal. It is one of most famous revolutionary terrorism organisations of early 20th century. Its Dhaka section alone had 500 branches.
  1. Correct Answer: D
  • Their weakness lay in their lack of preparedness. They had underestimated the might of British. Also Lala Hardayal though a propagandist and inspirer, was not adept at organizing a movement at that scale. Their organizational structure was also weak.
  • Though a majority of the leaders of the Ghadar Movement, and most of the participants were drawn from among the Sikhs, the ideology that was created and spread through the Ghadar and other publications was strongly secular in tone.
  1. Correct Answer: A

Mappila Revolt – The Mappilas were the Muslim tenants inhabiting the Malabar region where most of the landlords were Hindus. The Mappilas had expressed their resentment against the oppression of the landlords during the nineteenth century also. Their grievances centred around lack of security of tenure, high rents, renewal fees and other oppressive exactions.

The Mappila tenants were particularly encouraged by the demand of the local Congress body for a government legislation regulating tenant-landlord relations. Soon, the Mappila movement merged with the ongoing Khilafat agitation. The leaders of the Khilafat – Non-Cooperation Movement like Gandhi, Shaukat Ali and Maulana Azad addressed Mappila meetings. After the arrest of national leaders, the leadership passed into the hands of local Mappila leaders.

Things took a turn for the worse in August 1921 when the arrest of a respected priest leader, Ali Musaliar, sparked off large – scale riots. Initially, the symbols of British authority-courts, police stations, treasuries and offices- and unpopular landlords (jenmies who were mostly Hindus) were the targets. But once the British declared martial law and repression began in earnest, the character of the rebellion underwent a definite change.

Many Hindus were seen by the Mappilas to be helping the authorities. What began as an anti-government and anti – landlord affair acquired communal overtones. The communalization of the rebellion completed the isolation of the Mappilas from the Khilafat- Non-Cooperation Movement. By December 1921, all resistance had come to an end.

  1. Correct Answer: D

The Swadeshi period saw the creative use of traditional popular festivals and melas as a means of reaching out to the masses. The Ganapati and Shivaji festivals, popularized by Tilak, became a medium for Swadeshi propaganda not only in Western India but also in Bengal. Traditional folk theatre forms such as jatras are extensively used in disseminating the Swadeshi message in an intelligible form to vast sections of the people, many of whom were being introduced to modern political ideas for the first time.

Another important aspect of the Swadeshi Movement was the great emphasis given to self-reliance or ‘Atmasakti’ as a necessary part of the struggle against the government. Self reliance in various fields meant the re-asserting of national dignity, honor and confidence.

Among the several forms of struggle thrown up by the movement, it was the boycott of foreign goods which met with the greatest visible success at the practical and popular level. Boycott and public burning of foreign cloth, picketing of shops selling foreign goods, all became common in remote corners of Bengal as well as in many important towns and cities throughout the country. Women refused to wear foreign bangles and use foreign utensils, washermen refused to wash foreign clothes and even priests declined offerings which contained foreign sugar.

Corps of volunteers (or samitis as they were called) were another major form of mass mobilization widely used by the Swadeshi Movement. The Swadesh Bandhab Samiti set up by Ashwini Kumar Dutt, a school teacher, in Barisal was the most well known volunteer organization of them all.

  1. Correct Answer: B
  • At the Surat conference in 1907, congress split. The moderate leaders having captured the machinery of the congress excluded the militant extremist elements from it.
  • The congress split into 2 separate groups of moderates and extremists.
  1. Correct Answer: D

All-India Kisan Congress was established in Lucknow in April 1936 which later changed its name to the All India Kisan Sabha. Swami Sahajanand, the militant founder of the Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (1929), was elected the President, and N.G. Ranga, the pioneer of the Kisan Movement in Andhra and a renowned scholar of the agrarian problem, the General Secretary.

The first session was greeted in person by Jawaharlal Nehru. Other participants included Ram Manohar Lohia, Sohan Singh Josh, Indulal Yagnik, Jayaprakash Narayan, Mohanlal Gautam, Kamal Sarkar, Sudhin Pramanik and Ahmed Din.

A Kisan Manifesto was finalized at the All-India Kisan Committee session in Bombay and formally presented to the Congress Working Committee to be incorporated into its forthcoming manifesto for the 1937 elections. The Kisan Manifesto considerably influenced the agrarian programme adopted by the Congress at its Faizpur session, which included demands for fifty per cent reduction in land revenue and rent, a moratorium on debts, the abolition of feudal levies, security of tenure for tenants, a living wage for agricultural labourers, and the recognition of peasant unions.

  1. Correct Answer: D
  • Deccan Pesant Riots took place during 1870s having no relation with Non Cooperation Movement(NCM).
  • No tax movement at Guntur was peaceful movement during 1920s directed against the government. It was a part of NCM. Kisan Movement initiated in UP, Akali Movement in Punjab and Mopilah revolt in Kerala. All of three were indirecy impacted by the passions triggered by NCM. 
  1. Correct Answer: A

It was active members of the Home Rule League in U.P. who initiated the process of the organization of the peasants of the province into Kisan Sabhas. The unity of high caste and low caste peasants was a marked feature of this movement.

  1. Correct Answer: D

All the 3 pairs are correctly matched.

  • At Ahmedabad mill strike, Gandhiji advised the workers to go on a strike against their mill owners and to demand a 35% increase in wages. He himself undertook a fast onto death.
  • At Kheda, Gandhiji advised the peasants to withhold payment of revenue till their demands for remission
    were met.
  • To protest against the Rowlatt act, Gandhiji formed the Satyagraha Sabhas whose members would disobey the act and get themselves arrested.
  1. Correct Answer: C
  • In 1897, plague broke out in Poona and the government had to undertake severe measures of segregation and house- searches. Unlike many other leaders, Tilak stayed in Poona, supported the Government and organised his own measures against the plague. He advised people not to resist the segregation of plague patients and house searches.
  • The harsh and heartless manner in which the officials dealt with the plague stricken people caused popular resentment against the officials resulting in the assassination of Rand, the chairman of the Plague Committee in Poona, and Lt. Ayrest by the Chapekar brothers on 27 June 1898.
  1. Correct Answer: A
  • Pair 1 is correct as the Indian states committee or Butler committee in 1927 was appointed to investigate and clarify the relationship between the paramount power and the Princes.
  • Pairs 2 and 3 are incorrect. While Hunter Committee was formed to enquire the Punjab wrongs and actions of general Dyer, Hartog Committee was constituted in 1929 to assess the state of education.
  1. Correct Answer: C
  • Azad was more supportive of socialist ideas.
  • The Hindustan Republican Association was formed in 1924 to organise an armed revolution. But they became influenced by Socialist ideas. In 1928, under the leadership of Chandra Shekhar Azad, they changed the name of their organisation to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
  • Bhagat Singh wanted to use the court as a forum for revolutionary propaganda after they threw bomb in Parliament. He never made any attempt to be a part of Parliament and use it as a forum for debate and discussion.
  1. Correct Answer: D
  • All the 3 given sections of masses participated actively in Civil Disobedience Movement. Youths especially the students played most prominent role in boycotting foreign cloths and in picketing.
  • Traders’ associations and commercial bodies were themselves quite active in implementing the boycott, as were the many mill owners who refused to use foreign yarn and pledged not to manufacture coarse cloth that competed with khadi.
  • Workers actively joined numerous mass demonstrations in Bombay, Calcutta and Madras and were in forefront in Sholapur.
  1. Correct Answer: D
  • World war invovling mutual struggle between the imperial powers destroyed the myth of racial superiority.
  • The war led to increased misery among the poorer classes of Indians. For them the War had meant heavy taxation and soaring prices of the daily necessities of life. They were getting ready to join any movement of protest.
  • The mass agitation could not be carried out under the leadership of the Indian National Congress, which had become, under moderate leadership, a passive and inert political organisation with no political work among the people to its credit. Therefore, two Home Rule Leagues were started in 1915-16, under the leadership of Annie Besant and Lokamanya Tilak.
  1. Correct Answer: A

Seven Indians, headed by M.N. Roy, met at Tashkent in October 1920 and set up a Communist Party of India. The CPI called upon all its members to enroll themselves as members of the Congress, form a strong left-wing in all its organs, cooperate with all other radical nationalists, and make an effort to transform the Congress into a more radical mass-based organization.

  1. Correct Answer: B
    The correct match is:
    Surendra Nath Banerjee: Bengalee
    G. Subramaniya Aiyer: Swadesimitran
    Bal Gangadhar Tilak: Kesari
    Sishir Kumar Ghosh: Amrit Bazaar Partika
  2. Correct Answer: D

‘Responsivists’ like Madan Mohan Malviya, Lala Lajpat Rai and N. C. Kelkar offered to cooperate with the governments to secure the so called Hindu interests.

  1. Correct Answer: C

Due to increase in the political awakening in the states in 1938-39, evident in the formation of Praja mandals in many states and major struggles for reforms in states like Rajkot, Jammu and Kashmir etc, Congress at its Tripuri session 1939 announced its changed policy towards the states.

  1. Correct Answer: B

Gandhi’s first great experiment in satyagraha came in 1917 in Champaran, a district in Bihar. The peasantry on the indigo plantations in the district was excessively oppressed by the European planters. They were compelled to grow indigo on at least 3/20th of their land and to sell it at prices fixed by the planters.

  1. Correct Answer: C

The Karachi session of 1931 became memorable for its resolution on Fundamental Rights. The resolution guaranteed the basic civil rights of free speech, free press, free assembly, and freedom of association; equality before the law irrespective of caste, creed or sex; neutrality of the state in regard to all religions; elections on the basis of universal adult franchise; and free and compulsory primary education.

  1. Correct Answer: B

A new legislation in South Africa made it compulsory for Indians there to carry at all times certificates of registration with their fingerprints. The Indians under Gandhiji’s leadership decided not to submit to this discriminatory measure. Gandhiji formed the Passive Resistance Association to conduct the campaign.

  1. Correct Answer: B

The militant nationalists wanted the movement to be taken outside Bengal unlike the Moderates who wanted it to restrict it to the Bengal as they did not believe in the capacity of the masses.

The moderates wanted to boycott only foreign goods unlike the extremists who wanted to go beyond and extend the boycott from foreign goods to every form of association or cooperation with the colonial Government.

  1. Correct Answer: C
  • Direct struggle was not the agenda of the early nationalist. The nature of early nationalists was constitutional struggle within established constitutional framework. 
  • Creating national unity was one of the most important aims of the early nationalist. Early nationalists were fully aware of the fact that India had just entered the process of becoming a nation. The political demands were moderate in nature, with absence of mass mobilisation.
  1. Correct Answer: C
  • First Satyagrahi was Vinoba Bhave, while Nehru was the second one.
  • ‘Chalo Delhi’ slogan was given by Subhash Bose in 1944 during INA’s march towards India. During the Individual Satyagraha, the Satyagrahi would give a speech at a place and move to another place while trekking towards Delhi. Thus this movement toward the capital was popularly called ‘Delhi Chalo’.
  • This movement gave expression to Indian people’s strong political feeling about their non-allegience to British in the war.
  1. Correct Answer: C

The policy of the carrot and the stick was adopted by John Morley, the Secretary of State for India, in 1907. Instead of sneering at the Moderates, the policy was to be that of ‘rallying’ them. The policy, known as the policy of the carrot and the stick, was to be a three pronged one. It may be described as a policy of repression-conciliation-suppression.
The Extremists, were to be repressed, though mildly in the first stage, the purpose being to frighten the moderates. The moderates were then to be placated through some concessions and promises and hints were to be given that further concessions would be forthcoming if they disassociated themselves from the Extremists.

  1. Correct Answer: B
  • Newspapers in those days were not business enterprises, nor were the editors and journalists professionals. Newspapers were published as a national or public service. They were often financed as objects of philanthropy. To be a journalist was often to be a political worker and an agitator at considerable self-sacrifice. It was, of course, not very expensive to start a newspaper, though the editor had to usually live at a semi starvation level or earn his livelihood through a supplementary source.
  • The influence of the press extended far beyond its literate subscribers. Nor was it confined to cities and large towns. A newspaper would reach remote villages and would then be read by a reader to tens of others. Gradually library movements sprung up all over the country. A local ‘library’ would be organized around a single newspaper. A table, a bench or two or a charpoy would constitute the capital equipment. Every piece of news or editorial comment would be read or heard and thoroughly discussed. The newspaper not only became the political educator; reading or discussing it became a form of political participation.
  • Nearly all the major political controversies of the day were conducted through the press. It also played the institutional role of opposition to the government. Almost every act and every policy of the government was subjected to sharp criticism, in many cases with great care and vast learning backing it up. ‘Oppose, oppose, oppose’ was the motto of the Indian Press.
  1. Correct Answer: C

The first session of the INC was held in Bombay in 1885.

It was presided over by W. C. Banerjee. It was attended by 72 delegates.

That time Muslim league was not formed. It was formed in 1906.

  1. Correct Answer: B

Bardoli Satyagrah was organised against the proposed 30% increase in land revenue. The peasants organised No Tax Campaign under the leadership of Sardar vallabhbhai Patel and in the end won their demand.

  1. Correct Answer:
  • The government was successful in curbing the Swadeshi movement but the upsurge of nationalist sentiments could not die. People had been aroused from their slumber of centuries; they had learned to take a bold and fearless attitude in politics. Government repression and frustration caused by the failure of the leadership to provide a positive lead to the people ultimately resulted in revolutionary terrorism. The youth of Bengal found all avenues of peaceful protest and political action blocked and out of desperation they fell back upon individual heroic action and the cult of bomb.
  • The revolutionary nationalists did not try to generate a mass revolution instead they tried to copy the methods of the Irish terrorists and Russian nihilists, that is, to assassinate unpopular officials through individual actions.
    The revolutionary terrorists were inspired by many of the global events such as Russian revolution etc. The revolutionary terrorists also established centres abroad. The more famous of them were Shyamji Krishnavarma, V. D. Savarkar and Har Dayal in London and Madame Cama and Ajit Singh in Europe.
  1. Correct Answer: D

During the moderate phase of the struggle (1894-1906) Gandhiji set up the Natal Indian Congress. The second phase of the struggle in South Africa, which began in 1906, was characterized by the use of the method of passive resistance or civil disobedience, which Gandhiji named Satyagraha. It was first used when the Government enacted legislation making it compulsory for Indians to take out certificates of registration which held their finger prints.
The campaign was widened to include protest against a new legislation imposing restrictions on Indian migration.
The poll tax of three pounds imposed on ex- indentured Indians and invalidation of Indian marriages further widened the campaign.

  1. Correct Answer: A
  • Annie Besant was the president of Calcutta session of 1917.
  • Sarojini Naidu was the president of Kanpur session of 1925.
  • Kadambini Ganguly was not a president of INC session. She addressed the congress session in 1890. She was the first women graduate of Calcutta university.
  1. Correct Answer: B
  1. Correct Answer: C

Qadam Qadam Badhaye Ja” was the regimental quick march of Subhas Chandra Bose’s Indian National Army. Written by Vanshidhar Shukla and composed by Ram Singh Thakur, it was banned by British in India after World War II as seditious, with the ban subsequently being lifted in August 1947. 

  1. Correct Answer: A
  2. Correct Answer: D
  1. Correct Answer: B
  1. Correct Answer: D
  1. Correct Answer: A
  1. Correct Answer: B

Jugga Movement was started against Raja Amarchand of Bilaspur from 1883 to 1888. Brahmins of Gehdvi settled in sheds. Brahmins put the flag of their Deity on their sheds. People burnt their sheds and commit suicide before getting arrested by the the King.

  1. Correct Answer: A
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